Our Common Future Under Climate Change

International Scientific Conference 7-10 JULY 2015 Paris, France

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Tuesday 7 July - 17:00-18:30 UPMC Jussieu - ROOM 207 - Block 24/34

3314 - Innovate for addressing climate change challenges: examples from different industries

Parallel Session

Lead Convener(s): L. Johannsdottir (University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland)

Convener(s): D. Zimmer (Climate-KIC, Paris, France)

17:00

Opening remarks

L. Johannsdottir (University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland)

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Opening remarks
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17:05

Producing pulp and paper in 2050: from incremental improvements to breakthrough technologies

B. De Galembert (Confederation of European Paper Industries, Brussels, Belgium)

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Producing pulp and paper in 2050: from incremental improvements to breakthrough technologies

B. De Galembert (1)
(1) Confederation of European Paper Industries, Brussels, Belgium

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When the European Commission announced in 2011 its ambition to reduce the EU carbon emissions by 80% by 2050, the European pulp and paper sector, represented by the Confederation of European Paper Industries (CEPI), decided on its way to achieve that ambition. After the publication of its own roadmap, specifying the ways and conditions for the paper sector to reduce its own emissions by 80% and complementing it with an ambition to increase the creation of value in the sector by 50%, CEPI launched an open-innovation process to identify concrete technologies to reduce the carbon impact of the industry. The process was called “the Two Team Project”.

In November 2012, 2 teams composed of paper company representatives, experts from suppliers to the paper industry, scientists and researchers, free thinkers started to compete in identifying disruptive technologies to make pulp and paper differently and with much less energy and carbon emissions. Since the project was a competition, a pre-jury, followed by a jury had to choose a winning concept out to the eight that have been submitted by the teams.  They assessed the concepts on the basis of 5 objective criteria, primarily on the contribution to the carbon emissions’ reduction, but also on the contribution to value creation, the feasibility of the idea, the conditions for success, as well as the overall innovativeness of the idea.

In November 2013, a winning concept was unveiled by Connie Hedegaard, at the time European Commissioner for climate action. Since then, consortia to further develop the concepts and carry out the needed research have been established.

Among the 8 concepts for breakthrough technologies in pulp and paper making identified by the teams, 5 are listed below.

1° Deep Eutectic Solvent for pulp making - the winning concept – is an adaptation of a natural phenomenon known from plant metabolism. Glucose-based DES can dissolve wood and extract in a selective manner cellulose, lignin and hemicellulose, hence allowing their use to produce different products. The dissolving process takes place at low temperature and atmospheric pressure. By using DES, the European industry can secure a low-carbon (-20%) and low-energy (-40%) production of pulp and use the other components in bio-based products or sell them to other industries.

2° Making paper with less water and no longer using the current energy-intensive drying techniques is feasible. The concept builds on the blowing of dry fibre into highly turbulent steam and the sheet formation by flash condensation combined with steam expansion, hence requiring a thousandth of the usual water consumption.The industry can reduce its energy needs by 20% and its CO2 emissions by 50%.

3° The current paper drying technique via heated cylinders leads to evaporating water by using air as a heat carrier. Increasing temperature and humidity towards “pure vapour” allows using this “superheated steam” instead of air as heat carrier. With this, large amounts of heat can be recovered and recycled.  Using superheated steam for drying would deliver 25% energy reduction and up to 50% CO2 emissions reduction.

4° The use of a very highly consistent fibre input in the headbox requires the fibre to be placed into a very viscous environment to avoid flocculation, while protecting it from shear. The sheet formation is then achieved by pressing the dry pulp components, which takes away 80% of the viscous component, and is followed by a curing technique to obtain a dry sheet. Energy demand is here reduced by 25% and CO2 emissions by 55%.

5°“Supercritical” is a stage where CO2 is neither a liquid nor a gas reached by combining a certain pressure and a certain temperature. Supercritical CO2 would allow drying paper in an autoclave with much less energy and therefore CO2 emissions. It provides the additional benefit of extracting contaminants in the recycling process. Ideally, the mill CO2 emissions could be the needed resource to run the autoclaves (carbon capture and use). The energy demand is expected to decrease by 25% and the CO2 emission by 45%.

The CEPI Two Team process has shown to be successful in showing that an open-innovation process can deliver realistic and disruptive concepts, provided the enabling conditions have been put in place.

17:25

Dealing with the Aviation Challenge

P. Mcmanners (University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom)

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Dealing with the Aviation Challenge

P. Mcmanners (1)
(1) University of Reading, Geography, Reading, United Kingdom

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Aviation is a growing source of carbon dioxide emissions and an enabler of the global economy leading to a polarised debate about the economic benefits versus the environmental impact. This makes the sector a barometer of the world’s willingness to change economic models to deliver climate change mitigation. Currently aviation is outside the UNFCCC framework, with work on developing a way forward delegated to the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Aspirational targets have been proposed by the ICAO to limit net emissions based on a combination of shifting to bio fuel and market-based measures. However there are no plans to limit gross emissions which are expected to more than double by 2050. The research reported in this presentation has identified a way forward which requires moving away from fast-jet technology, except for an expensive First and Business Class service. Affordable flying will be on a new design of efficient and relatively slow air vehicle. Interviews with stakeholders found that passengers were generally content with the proposed changes and environmentalists were enthusiastic to shift from opposing flying to supporting the low-carbon model. Industry outside aviation was also willing to embrace the new model and focus on thinking through how they would adjust operations to suite. However, resistance was encountered from the two prime players, the aviation industry and government. The aviation industry was concerned at the impact on their business; concurring with the research which indicated that parts of the industry are likely to be bankrupted. Governmental actors did not foresee aviation coming high enough up policy priorities for them to expend political capital on taking action. In conclusion, there is a bright future for low-carbon aviation but the demand for change will have to come from society to bring the future of aviation onto the political radar so that politicians agree the policy changes required to force a reluctant industry to respond.

Speaker Biography: Peter McManners is a senior Visiting Fellow at Henley Business School and Doctoral Researcher in Geography at University of Reading, Reading, UK. His prime research interest is into the impact that the paradigm of sustainability has on society and the economy. He works across disciplines encompassing engineering, geography, business and economics. He has written a number of books on sustainability and related issues including Fly and be Damned: What next for aviation and climate change.

17:45

Lighting and climate change: Contributions from the LED sector

C. Gossart (Institut Mines-Télécom/Télécom École de Managements, Evry, France)

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Lighting and climate change: Contributions from the LED sector
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18:05

Final remarks

D. Zimmer (Climate-KIC, Paris, France)

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Final remarks
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