Our Common Future Under Climate Change

International Scientific Conference 7-10 JULY 2015 Paris, France

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Thursday 9 July - 17:30-19:00 UPMC Jussieu - Amphi Durand

3311 - Climate mitigation policies - learning, evaluating and comparing national experiences

Parallel Session

Lead Convener(s): P. Mallaburn (Climate Policy Journal, Welwyn Garden City, United Kingdom)

Climate Policies across Africa: Increasing Interactions and Building Resilience

A. Maupin (South African Institute of International Affairs SAIIA, Johannesburg, South Africa)

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Climate Policies across Africa: Increasing Interactions and Building Resilience

A. Maupin (1)
(1) South African Institute of International Affairs SAIIA, Johannesburg, South Africa

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In its quality of a worldwide well-attested phenomenon, climate change will spare no continent. This being said, Africa has started to host climate-related global conferences, such as the World Summit for Sustainable Development in Johannesburg in 2002 and the 17th Conference of the Parties (COP17) in Durban in 2011, both cities being located in South Africa. In addition, African climate-related bottom-up initiatives have played a growing role in climate negotiations, notably by shifting the climate change mindset from an environmental challenge to a development one. As a result of this more comprehensive view of climate change, numerous actions now speak to the increasing number of integrated public policies in different sectors and attempt to bridge the gap between policy development and implementation.

However, few African countries have developed comprehensive climate-related policies. More often, these policies focus on responding to extreme events on one side and managing resources on the other. For example, after Mozambique was forced to appeal for international help to rescue its people during the 2000-2001 massive floods related to the passage of several cyclones, the National Centre of Disasters Management (INGC) was created with the task to evaluate, response and adapt Mozambique to these changes. On a different note, recent provincial plans promulgated by the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) have mentioned the importance of including adaptation and mitigation strategies to fight climate change impacts and protect this country’s environment. In South Africa, the National Climate Change Response has been conceived as a process, which provides room for stakeholders comments and scentific inputs via dialogues. This diversity of responses reaffirms not only how diverse the national contexts (notably risks and priorities) are, but also how unique the stakeholders' interactions and the locally-built initiatives have become to tackle climate change challenges. 

Against this background, this paper presentation aims to provide an overview of the numerous climate-related policies that exist across African countries in order to analyse their political motives and responses to climate change. This, in turn, will contribute to develop and implement more interactive policies, which could be further scientific-and initiatives-informed at the national and regional level. Given the importance of natural resources for development and the expected global impacts of climate change on water, energy, forestry, among others, climate-related and resources-based policies would arguably become strategic components of state security. Interconnections between climate change and resources management policies already exist and cannot be ignored, when they demonstrate states’ growing interests in linking future adaptation and mitigation plans with environmental concerns across Africa. 

 

Policy Instruments to Overcome Energy Efficiency Barriers in Designated Buildings under Thailand's Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs)

Y. Asayama (National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan), B. Limmeechokchai (THAMMASAT University, Pathumthani, Thailand)

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Policy Instruments to Overcome Energy Efficiency Barriers in Designated Buildings under Thailand's Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs)

Y. Asayama (1) ; B. Limmeechokchai (2)
(1) National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan; (2) THAMMASAT University, Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, Pathumthani, Thailand

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Thailand pledged its Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) at UNFCCC COP20 in Lima, Peru, following ongoing discussions since 2012. Improvement of energy efficiency in designated buildings is one of the main countermeasures under the proposed NAMAs. Data collection on the actual energy consumption of the buildings plays a key role in determination of the scope of countermeasures as NAMAs and implementation of Measurement Reporting and Verification (MRV). However, the issue of how these countermeasures will be implemented in the context of the unsatisfactory progress of existing policy instruments, particularly the Building Energy Codes (BEC) and energy management reporting system as specified in the 2007 Energy Conservation Promotion (ECP) Act and the Energy Efficiency Development Plan (EEDP) over the period of 2011-2030 remains to be addressed.

The objective of this study is to examine the potential of policy instruments and energy-saving measures to overcome the existing barriers. Firstly the literature is reviewed, with discussion of theory-based policy instruments for building energy efficiency in order to analyze the situations and gaps in policy instruments adopted in Thailand. The means of enforcement and implementation of alternative policy options are also examined. The study also incorporates interviews with relevant stakeholders involved in the NAMA process as well as in EEDP in order to compensate for limitations in the literature available on Thailand’s situation. Furthermore, good practices implemented in other countries were considered for their suitability for application in Thailand.

The necessity of addressing legal and institutional barriers in order to overcome the information barriers was clearly evident in Thailand. The literature shows that regulatory measures have been implemented since 1995 under the ECP Act. However, these have only been implemented on an ad-hoc basis. In the case of existing buildings, there is no benchmark to identify electricity consumption involved in conducting the required energy management in each designated building. There are also limitations in the availability of information on technologies and technical information contribution to energy savings and operational management. The in-deep interviews indicated that BEC for the construction of new buildings and third-party energy audit have not as yet been implemented. The limitations in human resources and capacities to implement verification and monitoring of the submitted reports have prevented the consolidation of regulation measures as well as the revision of energy efficiency performance standards. Hence, this has given rise to a paucity of sufficient and credible data and made it difficult to achieve the understanding of the existing situation, future projections, and impact of policy instruments.

Results show that the targets of EEDP and Thailand’s NAMAs will not be effectively achieved without improvement in the means of achieving compliance levels in the existing ministerial regulations. Progress on this front will be achieved through improved awareness of energy efficiency and co-benefits of implementing the actions through the development of benchmarking and information disclosure for buildings’ energy performance, and providing tailor-made solutions. It is necessary to initiate process-oriented, interactive policy-making, with intensive technical training on the ground in order to enhance the credibility of governmental decisions and activities, and to collect and accumulate reliable data and information for energy efficiency toward the achievement of NAMA objectives.

Climate policies : learning from a comparison of different national experiences

P. Mallaburn (Climate Policy Journal, Welwyn Garden City, United Kingdom)

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Climate policies : learning from a comparison of different national experiences

P. Mallaburn (1)
(1) Climate Policy Journal, Welwyn Garden City, United Kingdom

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Peter Mallaburn will give an introductory speech to the session, questioning how a comparison between different national experiences of developing climate policies can be operated, and what are the challenges we face when trying to organise a learning process between these various experiences.

Price and Prejudice: The politics of carbon market establishment in Turkey

A. C. Gundogan (King's College London, London, United Kingdom), E. Turhan (Istanbul Policy Center, Istanbul, Turkey)

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Price and Prejudice: The politics of carbon market establishment in Turkey

AC. Gundogan (1) ; E. Turhan (2)
(1) King's College London, Geography, London, United Kingdom; (2) Istanbul Policy Center, Sabanc? University, Istanbul, Turkey

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Despite increasing number of studies on carbon trading's inefficiencies and self-contradictions, it has been continually presented as the most effective climate change mitigation option and has become a huge global business. On the other hand, governments' endless support to the carbon markets has been criticised since the emission trading balloons exploded numerous times. Being an EU-accession country with no access to EU ETS (Emissions Trading Scheme) and an Annex-I country with no access to flexibility mechanisms under now defunct Kyoto Protocol, Turkey is a latecomer to the game. While being a country whose greenhouse gas emissions increased by %133 between 1990-2013 showing the highest rate of change among OECD members, Turkey’s climate politics are increasingly drawn into market based climate policies particularly in the dawn of a new global climate agreement that is set to be signed in 2015. As a result of the external pressure from institutions like World Bank and private sector driven processes, Turkey has started lay down limited policy and legislative ground work in pursuit of setting up an emission trading system which then expected to be linked to the international carbon markets. However, implementation of the emission trading mechanism has never been widely discussed in Turkey hence making it a highly non-transparent process. Potential environmental and socio-economical impacts of the market-based instruments in the framework of combatting climate change are being watered down by politicians, industrialists and technocrats while illusive promises of the carbon markets are presented as the centerpiece of Turkey’s position in the new climate regime. This paper critically analyzes the perceptions, promises and discourses of the emerging emission trading system in Turkey from a political ecology lens by scrutinizing different actors' (including representatives of environmental justice movements, state bureaucrats, private sector and international organizations) statements. By doing this, this research aims go beyond dominant voices on carbon market establishment in Turkey, by revealing power relations, preferential treatment of some top-down policy options and the influence of multilateral finance organizations. Such critical approaches suggest that policy preference towards carbon markets vis-à-vis carbon tax in Turkey are not necessarily a rational process lack scientific substance as well as public buy-in. 

Climate legislation in the UK: the Climate Change Act and the Committee on Climate Change

S. Smith, S. Smith (Committee on Climate Change, London, United Kingdom)

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Climate legislation in the UK: the Climate Change Act and the Committee on Climate Change

S. Smith (1)
(1) Committee on Climate Change, London, United Kingdom

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The UK has traditionally been a progressive nation in calling for action on global warming. In 2008 it passed a Climate Change Act with strong backing from all the major political parties.

The Act set a target for national greenhouse emissions to be at least 80% below 1990 levels by 2050, created a system of 5-year carbon budgets to get there, and set a programme for adapting to climate change. It also created an independent Committee on Climate Change (CCC) to advise on these aims and monitor progress towards meeting them.

This talk will cover the Act, the role of the CCC and the various factors (such as climate science, economics and international circumstances) that inform the UK emission targets. It will show how the 2050 target is achievable, highlighting the key technologies likely to be needed and the cost involved. We will also see what policy progress has been made in the 7 years since the Act was passed and take a critical look at whether or not the UK is on track to meet the first few carbon budgets.

Panel discussion

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Panel discussion
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