Our Common Future Under Climate Change

International Scientific Conference 7-10 JULY 2015 Paris, France

Menu
  • Home
  • Zoom Interactive Programme
Cliquer pour fermer

Friday 10 July - 11:30-13:00 UNESCO Fontenoy - ROOM XI

L4.2 - Resilience and Transformative Solutions

Large Parallel Session

Chair(s): L. Nurse (University of the West Indies, Bridgetown, Barbados)

Lead Convener(s): R. Mclean (University of New South Wales, Canberra, BC ACT, Australia)

11:30

Climate change governance and Caribbean SIDS

M. Scobie (The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago)

Abstract details
Climate change governance and Caribbean SIDS

M. Scobie (1)
(1) The University of the West Indies, Institute of International Relations, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago

Abstract content

The analysis of governance of climate change is extremely important, more so for small island developing states: adaptation, mitigation, climate finance, governance architectures, environmental justice, equity etc.  Albeit a small proportion of the world, the peoples of these nations and their governance challenges are part of the global climate policy discourse.  That said, the recent scholarly literature has focused on the science of climate change for SIDS, but there is less on the governance of climate change for SIDS in general and the Caribbean in particular.  The science is clear: adaptation is needed and urgently, yet the formula to make this happen is hard to come by.   What would be a useful model for the climate governance architecture in the Caribbean SIDS region?   The paper puts the results of the present science and future projections into the context of existing governance arrangements and looks at the weaknesses of the present system and how those may be eliminated to improve governance effectiveness.  These issues are important for climate policy practitioners in SIDS and should also be at the forefront of the minds of academics, policy makers and practitioners in donor countries as they seek to engage in the analysis of the best models for effectiveness in climate governance, especially for SIDS.

While there are studies on the global dynamics of environmental governance, governance at the local level in SIDS, and in particular Caribbean SIDS has been neglected in the literature. Transnational climate governance is becoming more complex (Andonova, Betsill, and Bulkeley 2009), with a multiplicity of new actors, roles, structures and architectures of the earth’s governance (Bulkeley and Moser 2007).  This fragmentation of global and local levels of authority are often a hindrance for climate change governance (Palmujoki 2013).  The effectiveness, legitimacy and transparency of voluntary non-binding parallel streams of governance is under debate but reflects global engagement for governing climate change (Suiseeya and Caplow 2013) and (Kalfagianni 2014)).  The challenge is to develop a global climate governance model that balances legitimacy and effectiveness while allowing participation from stakeholders (Dryzek and Stevenson 2011).   This is particularly true as vulnerable small island developing states try to find a place in the global governance debate and to govern climate change in their countries. 

As in every other area of governance, climate governance works where good governance is institutionally entrenched in political systems and climate governance is difficult where weak and under-resourced institutional arrangements are present.  Environmental impacts of climate change increase the social, economic and environmental governance challenges and responses of governments.  At the heart of effective climate change governance is the successful political coordination of adaptation and mitigation efforts from global to local scales by state and non-state actors (Fröhlich and Knieling 2013).  States and international organisations are responsible for at least a third of the initiatives (Hale and Roger 2014). The private sector has been heavily involved through private carbon certification schemes, emission trading markets and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects in partnerships with nation states (Lund 2013). 

This research reviewed the 15 SIDS that form part of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and share mechanisms for climate change governance. Information on climate change and development impacts for this paper was obtained from semi-structured interviews with national and regional officials in climate change related posts.  Secondary sources included reports and publications of multilateral development agencies, regional agencies and from the IPCC.    The commonality of perspectives from the interviews was remarkable but not unexpected, key themes included: the institutions that provide the greatest support at global, regional and national levels for climate change governance and their most important impacts/contributions; the main sources of financing for climate change governance in the Caribbean and whether they were sufficient; challenges in application of funds; adequacy and effectiveness of regional mechanisms; whether time-bound project financing allowed for sustainable adaptation policies at the national level; alternative approaches for Caribbean states and what more is needed regarding global, regional and local climate change adaptation. 

This paper questions whether and to what extent global governance dynamics for climate change resonate in small states. It argues that the Caribbean climate change problem is both a resource problem and a governance problem. States have limited resources due to pre-existing development challenges and insufficient external support given the unsustainability of the traditional project based financing model of climate governance.  These small states face huge environmental changes that they cannot influence and weak governance architectures to respond to this new threat to development.

11:45

Creating the conditions for transformative action – mobilising the private sector in SIDS

J. Firth (Acclimatise, Newark, United Kingdom)

Abstract details
Creating the conditions for transformative action – mobilising the private sector in SIDS

J. Firth (1)
(1) Acclimatise, Newark, United Kingdom

Abstract content

Acclimatise has worked in over 50 countries assessing the risks arising from a changing climate advising international, national and sub-national governments, NGOs, development partners and business and financial services sectors.  Drawing on our experience and observations from published sources this presentation will explore a theme which we believe is a significant driver and enabler in delivering transformative solutions.

The role of the ‘private sector’ in resilience building and adapting to climate change remains an area which has received little attention.  Most SIDS operate on a market based economy in which the private sector directly and indirectly is the largest contributor to a country’s GDP.  However the scope of national adaptation planning, the vulnerability and risk assessments providing the evidence base; and the recognition of the sector’s role in providing and delivering solutions is rarely explored. 

This is not helped by using a technical ‘adaptation language’ during engagement which has little relevance to those in the sector and treating the ‘private sector’ as a homogenous group. Within many governments the climate change portfolio is ‘owned’ by Ministries with environmental or natural resource based departments. These Ministries are usually under-funded and have limited political influence within governments.  This in turn, constrains their ability to influence cross-sectoral decision making, national budget setting and prioritisation, and ultimately in delivering transformative change working with the private sector.  If we are to respond to the climate change challenge then we need to see (in both developing and developed countries) the resilience and adaptation portfolio passing to where the power is: finance, national planning and the offices of Prime Ministers or Presidents. 

12:00

Transformative solutions in two Caribbean Insular Territories Under Climate Change Pressure : How can we reach Resilience targets ? Climate Governance in two non-independent Caribbean Insular Territories: two different paths?

J. Priam (Servicios Cientificos y Tecnicos, San Juan, Puerto Rico)

Abstract details
Transformative solutions in two Caribbean Insular Territories Under Climate Change Pressure : How can we reach Resilience targets ? Climate Governance in two non-independent Caribbean Insular Territories: two different paths?

J. Priam (1)
(1) Centro de Investigacion, Caribbean islands, Puerto Rico

Abstract content

This contribution shows how two non-independent islands of the Caribbean reflect the dynamics of the Metropolis and so Climate Governance. For Puerto-Rico, the adopted solutions must be understood through USA relation and for Guadeloupe, through Europe and France.

Both territories traduce the integration of the international level conceptualization as they become “laboratories for experimentation” to demonstrate successful transformative solutions to transfer to other insular territories or even to their metropolis.

We present here the renewable energy situation and some key documents in Puerto-Rico and Guadeloupe that demonstrate ways of action. As both territories are islands regarding a Mainland that enacts ways of action, we discuss the resilience regarding that context.

 

12:15

Innovative climate financing in Small Islands Developing States (SIDS)

V. Fayolle (Acclimatise, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom)

Abstract details
Innovative climate financing in Small Islands Developing States (SIDS)

V. Fayolle (1)
(1) Acclimatise, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom

Abstract content

Acclimatise has worked in over 50 countries assessing the risks arising from a changing climate advising international, national and sub-national governments, NGOs, development partners and business and financial services sectors.  Drawing on our experience and observations from published sources this presentation will explore a theme which we believe is a significant driver and enabler in delivering transformative solutions.

As part of a joint effort to mobilize US$100 billion per year by 2020 from both public and private sources to address both the adaptation and mitigation needs of developing countries, a new global financing mechanism was established: the United Nations Green Climate Fund (GCF). Great expectations are being placed on the recently capitalised GCF: The GCF shall meet ambitious goals in terms of promoting a “paradigm shift towards low-emission and climate-resilient development pathways by providing support to developing countries to limit or reduce their greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt to the impacts of climate change” with a special emphasis on adaptation in SIDS, Least Developed Countries and Africa, as well as mobilize funds at scale in particular through private corporations, recognising that in the context of strained government budgets the private sector accounts for 70 to 85% of total global investments.

 

Against this backdrop, the GCF’s Private Sector Facility aims to play a key role in promoting participation of private sector actors in developing countries, with a special emphasis on domestic private sector actors and adaptation (recipients of funding). However, the specific modalities to achieve this still need to be defined. If the GCF is to scale up private investments in building climate resilience in SIDS, it is essential that it reflects up on the experience in a SIDS context gained by existing multilateral and bilateral climate initiatives, such as the World Bank’s led Pilot Programme for Climate Resilience (PPCR) in the Caribbean and Pacific, that deploy concessional resources using a programmatic approach.

12:30

Panel discussion

R. Mclean (University of New South Wales, Canberra, Australia), R. Nicholls (University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom), L. Charles

Abstract details
Panel discussion
Abstract content