Our Common Future Under Climate Change

International Scientific Conference 7-10 JULY 2015 Paris, France

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Wednesday 8 July - 15:00-16:30 UPMC Jussieu - ROOM 207 - Block 24/34

4415 (a) - Urban policies for Accessibility, Mobility and Informal settlements in the Global South to cope with Climate Change: Emerging Issues, Innovations and Opportunities

Parallel Session

Chair(s): L. Tomasoni (CODATU, Lyon, France)

Convener(s): M.K. Teotia (Centre for Research in Rural and Industrial Development (CRRID), Chandigarh , India)

15:00

Urban form, mobility and greenhouse gas emission in African cities: the case of Yaoundé

V. Ongolo Zogo (Univerisity of Yaoundé, Yaoundé, Cameroon)

Abstract details
Urban form, mobility and greenhouse gas emission in African cities: the case of Yaoundé

V. Ongolo Zogo (1)
(1) Univerisity of Yaoundé, Public Economics, Yaoundé, Cameroon

Abstract content

Short summary: ( max 15 lines)

This contribution using the city of Yaoundé with a mono centric spatial form, as a case study, aims to show how accessibility is created through the link between urban form and transport services.

The main finding of the estimation is that CO2 emissions is linked to mobility practices associated to distance covered. Consequently, urban form and mobility planning in Yaoundé are not CO2 neutral. The mono centric spatial form of the city of Yaoundé with a spatial concentration of services and economic activities, low residential density likely induces high level of travel demand. Associated with high emission of greenhouse gas services, induces high level of CO2 emissions. The main policy herald should be the necessity to insist on putting in place an integrated land used and mobility plan with a specific focus on non-motorized facilities and mass transit solutions.

Full abstract: (max 34 lines)

Urban sprawl and mobility are currently becoming an important concern in developed countries with the principal challenge being the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Nonetheless, in sub-Saharan Africa where household’s motorization rate is still weak, the main issue appears to be adequate transportation. This communication aims at shading light on integrated land use and mobility planning actions with a focus on reducing vehicle emissions, introducing clean fuel and clean vehicle technologies, improving fuel economy and reducing CO2 emissions.

Estimates by Godard (2002) for some cities in Africa indicate that CO2 emissions rate is weaker than certain capital cities in Europe. However, studies by CERTU and STC (2002), redone by Duprez (2002), highlight the interest of this question by  comparing greenhouse gas pollution between buses and business associated with small size low cost vehicles in Abidjan. Results indicate that, those taxis reject more CO2 emissions than minibuses and buses.

This contribution using the city of Yaoundé with a mono centric spatial form, as a case study, aims to show how accessibility is created through the link between urban form and transport services. The aim of the paper is to evaluate accessibility policies by measuring the consequences of urban sprawl on the production of greenhouse gas emission, within the context of an African cities experiencing growth, where mass transit has not been adopted as a pertinent solution for urban displacement. Using data from the third Cameroon household consumption survey (2007) and the urban displacement Plan for Yaoundé (2010) describing mobility is realized by individuals on a daily and weekly basis, the study estimates the rate of CO2 emission according to characteristics associated to displacement as well as urban form.

The main finding of the estimation is that CO2 emissions is linked to mobility practices associated to distance covered. Consequently, urban form and mobility planning in Yaoundé are not CO2 neutral. The mono centric spatial form of the city of Yaoundé with a spatial concentration of services and economic activities, low residential density likely induces high level of travel demand. Associated with high emission of greenhouse gas services, induces high level of CO2 emissions. The main policy herald should be the necessity to insist on putting in place an integrated land used and mobility plan with a specific focus on non-motorized facilities and mass transit solutions.

15:12

The EASI (Enable, Avoid, Shift, Improve) concept: a climate-friendly policy framework to ensure accessibility and sustainable mobility in urban areas of developing countries

J.C. Crochet (CODATU, Angers, France)

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The EASI (Enable, Avoid, Shift, Improve) concept: a climate-friendly policy framework to ensure accessibility and sustainable mobility in urban areas of developing countries

JC. Crochet (1)
(1) CODATU, Angers, France

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The objective of this presentation is to discuss the results of a major study recently carried out under the aegis of the SSATP on the basis of which a new approach to sustainable urban transport in developping countries, the EASI (Enable, Avoid, Shift, Improve) concept, was developed. The SSATP is the Africa Transport Program, administered by the World Bank and funded by various bilateral and multilateral donors. The SSATP is the main donor supported African fund dedicated to knowledge creation and capacity building in the transport sector. 

The study took place in 2013-14 and focused on African cities. Although specific to the African context, the study’s findings and recommendations apply to most developing countries particularly those with low to medium GDP per capita. The study’s goal was, first, to identify through a bottom-up approach the key constraints to the efficiency of urban mobility systems and accessibility in Africa, including the cities’ ability to reduce green house gas (GHG) emissions and to adapt to potential extreme climatic events, and, second, to present priority policy measures needed to address these constraints. The study is based on a systematic and thorough data collection effort of a scope never carried out before. Twenty cities (metropolitan areas in fact) were selected for the data collection. A detailed set of information in eleven domains was collected for each city in the same format.

The key weaknesses that were identified were the following: (i) inadequate governance systems, although there was a lot of variability in this among the cities; (ii) little progress with respect to land-use planning and control and their integration with the development of mobility systems; (iii) insufficient system optimization of the various transport modes; (iv) unplanned development of informal, environmentally unsound, small public transport providers; (v) serious deficiencies in the design of infrastructure and in its operation and maintenance; (vi) high level of traffic accidents; and (vii) neglect for the environmental impact of transport and the resilience of cities. A major consequence of these weaknesses is that urban growth produces much greater GHG emissions in the transport sector in Africa than it needs to do. The presentation will examine in particular the relationships between two indices developed during the study to assess the level of governance achieved by the cities as well as their performance vis à vis mobility and accessibility, and, indirectly climate change.

The presentation will then discuss the key elements of the policy framework needed to address the above issues. It will show that the ASI (Avoid, Shift, Improve) conceptual framework formulated about ten years ago to structure public action mostly in developed countries is fully relevant to African and developing world cities as long as it is adapted to the particular context of these cities. This requires that special emphasis be given to the future urban form and future infrastructure networks (including their resilience) in the “Avoid” actions, to an integrated and inclusive multimodal mobility strategy focused on non motorized transport and low cost public transport in the “Shift” actions, and to more efficient traffic and vehicles in the “Improve” actions.

The presentation will also emphasize that, for public action to take place and be effective, it is essential to establish a competent and responsible governance framework for urban transport in Africa, which will lead the transformation effort in conjunction with all stakeholders, therefore to add a set of “Enable” actions. This framework should be capable of anticipating needs, guiding action, and ensuring integrated management and development of urban transport systems. It would include the adoption of a national urban transport strategy, the adequate allocation of public responsibilities at the metropolitan level, the setting up of metropolitan transport agencies in the large cities, the fast development of human resources, the sustainable increase of financing flows to urban transport, the continuous participation of civil society in the development of urban transport systems, and the involvement of the private sector in the provision of transport infrastructure and services. 

15:24

Urban Agenda for Climate Change- Meeting the mobility needs of urban poor

R. Sharma (Housing and Urban Development Corporation Ltd., Delhi, India)

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Urban Agenda for Climate Change- Meeting the mobility needs of urban poor

R. Sharma (1)
(1) Housing and Urban Development Corporation Ltd., Human Settlement Management Institute, Delhi, India

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India is at the doorstep of rapid urbanisation. The process of urbanisation is contributed by migration of population, with diverse socio-economic and cultural backgrounds, to cities. One common aspiration they all come with is- quality of life. Although cities contribute to more than two-third of total GDP, the flow back for city improvement is very meagre. City infrastructure is getting overstressed with the added burden of migrants. City is unable to meet the demand of migrants for housing, urban services, employment and social security.The result is islands of disparity and social divide between different segments of population on the basis of origin, socio-economic fabric and religion.

Ove the years, many attempts have been made to integrate population living in various clusters of the city. Inclusive planning is a tool, which provides opportunities for the residents to plan for their social, physical, cultural and socio-economic needs. Urban transport is an improtant entry point towards acheiving the objective of inclusive planning, for the simple reason that it cuts across all the sectors and population. Mobility is directly linked to interaction of various stakeholders, which is a precondition for generation of GDP. Mobility also consumes large resources and leads to high levels of carbon footprints.

This session would look into various planning imperatives pertaining to urban transport, with an objective of making a city 'inclusive' and environment friendly. Discussions would focus on formulating strategies to make transport accessible to the urban poor, with an objective of reducing carbon footprints. Tools like integrated transport network, last mile connectivity, transport demand management, transport oriented development, transport pricing etc would be illustrated to demonstrate their adaptability in meeting the needs of urban poor in the making of inclusive and carbon neutral cities. 

15:36

Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans: a local approach for national mitigation actions

J. Allaire (CODATU, Lyon, France), T. May, (Institute for Transport Studies, Leeds, United Kingdom)

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Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans: a local approach for national mitigation actions

J. Allaire (1) ; T. May, (2)
(1) CODATU, Lyon, France; (2) Institute for Transport Studies, Leeds, United Kingdom

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In European countries, Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans (SUMP) have shown how much they could be a powerfull approach to define urban transport policies that combine the multiplicity of transport modes and their actors.

In its international review, the European Conference of Ministers of Transport (ECMT, 2002) highlighted the principal barriers to effective SUMP development as poor policy integration and coordination, counterproductive institutional roles, unsupportive regulatory frameworks, weaknesses in pricing, poor data quality and quantity, limited public support and lack of political resolve.

Thanks to Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMA) there is an interesting potential to develop mitigation policies in developing countries by combining local urban transport planning and national policies.

The concept of the NAMA - Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action - emerged in December 2007 during the 13th session of the Conference of the Parties in Bali (COP13) and it was detailed in the Cancun agreement in 2010. NAMAs are voluntary measures taken by developing countries - and registered by the UNFCCC - to reduce their GHG emissions. Not only do they cover investments that directly reduce GHG emissions, they also cover investment projects and programmes, as well as sector-based or national policies to reduce emissions in the medium and long term.

They must refer to a real-time situation and show the expected reductions in GHG emissions using MRV methodology (Measure, Report, Verify) to quantify the impact of the measures taken. But they have also to report on co-benefices such as accessibility improvments, congestion reduction, air quality, road safety, public health, etc.

By using a national MRV (Measure, Report, Verify) methodology, the local authorities could monitor and evaluate the impact of their mobility policies within a SUMP process, but their effort could also be encouraged at the national level, by national support and appropriated legislative framework before being submitted to the UNFCCC secretariat.

Such Vertical NAMAs in the urban transport sector could certainly facilitate sustainable urban developpement in developping countries and give to urban transport a transformational role for cities.

15:44

Transforming a Megacity: Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation in Jakarta

E.B. Kurniawan (Ministry of Public Works and Housing, Jakarta, Indonesia)

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Transforming a Megacity: Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation in Jakarta

EB. Kurniawan (1)
(1) Ministry of Public Works and Housing, Jakarta, Indonesia

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Recently, Jakarta has been selected as a city with the worst traffic jam in the world. As among the largest urban areas in the world, the city suffers various urban problems on extreme levels. In 2010, it has 771 traffic congestion points and 11,185 l/s water supply deficit. It is also struck by flood every year. Flood does not only come from the upstream areas but also from the sea. Some of its northern coastal areas experience rapid land subsidence with 7.5 cm/year on average. It is predicted that if nothing be done, water from the sea will go up into the heart of the city in less than 50 years. The rapid urban population growth in Indonesia, especially in Greater Jakarta, makes the problems in the future worsening.

The 5th Assessment Report describes how urban areas are strongly related to the climate change. It contributes significantly to CO2 emissions. Urban form and transport infrastructure, as well as density and mixed use of land use are strongly related to GHG emissions. They also have a strong link to the level of efficiency in the use of energy.

This paper explains how the Indonesian government addresses those problems, their strategies and to what extent they already implement such efforts. Do they handle it in a comprehensive manner? Wich efforts can be considered as climate change mitigation, adaptation and both? Such questions will be answered here.

The central government of Indonesia comes up with the concept of Green City, not only for Jakarta but also for other Indonesian big cities. The concept requires that a city in Indonesia needs to focus in improving the condition of its eight elements, namely Green Planning, Green Open Space, Green Waste, Green Energy, Green Water, Green Transportation, Green Building and Green Community.

In the case of applying the concept, the government is on the way of mainstreaming climate change into spatial planning. In the case of Jakarta, it tries to cope with the increasing number of motorized vehicles on the roads and the worsening traffic congestion by improving the public transport condition through the development of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and Mass Rapid Transit (MRT). The government also tries to connect the improvement of that public transport network with the densification of land use and the application of mixed use by implementing the transit oriented development (TOD) concept.

As for the problem of land subsidence and the sea level rise, the government has a plan to build the so called Giant Sea Wall, which can protect the coast of Jakarta and to be functioned as raw water storage. In addition, Jakarta is also increasing the size of its green open space. It may reduce the flood and at the same time cooling the city’s temperature. Therefore, Jakarta is and will be experiencing a big transformation in order to overcome its problems as well as ways of climate change mitigation and adaptation. 

15:52

Comparative resilience process of Asian river / coastal cities faced with hydraulic crisis

C. Pierdet (Université de Technologie de Compiègne - COMUE SORBONNE-UNIVERSITES, FRANCE, France)

Abstract details
Comparative resilience process of Asian river / coastal cities faced with hydraulic crisis

C. Pierdet (1)
(1) Université de Technologie de Compiègne - COMUE SORBONNE-UNIVERSITES, Umr 8591 lgp (meudon), FRANCE, France

Abstract content

The Asian coastal or river cities are already subject to very high stresses in their urban development. They have most often expanded behind the bank of the rivers or on the coastal areas with dikes and embankments on the river floodplains. So they are very vulnerable to natural disasters such as flooding and sea level rise.

For example, in Phnom Penh, infrastructures of protection against flooding (i.e. drainage network in the city center and large peripheral dikes) have been rebuilt only after the great flood of 1996. They have been badly damaged during the Khmer rouge regime.

In Bangkok Metropolitan Area (BMA), despite the many evacuation canals and pumping stations, major floods occur almost every year. The floods of 2011 have caused new developments in order to protect the inner city and industrial areas north of the capital.

Recently, in Phnom Penh and Bangkok, speculative projects to private investors reject in the outskirts of cities the poorest populations. The consequences are social, but also environmental. Firstly the peripheral areas, in contrast to the city center, having no embankments, are prone to flooding, with no proper drainage systems. Secondly the proliferation of high-rise towers worsens the process of subsidence and flooding vulnerability of cities. How to be resilient without being sustainable?

So we propose to compare the resilience to hydraulic crises of these river/coastal Asian cities, as well as actors and tools used in each case for the implementation of priority actions identified at the conference of Hyogo in 2005 (HFA 2005-2015). They gradually incorporate into their planning instructions to promote risk reduction, under pressure guidelines and international actors such as United Nations, the World Bank and NGO.

16:00

Poster presentations:

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Poster presentations:
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16:00

Reimagining Civic Technologies for the Urban Poor in Indian Cities

S. Kesavan (Crosslinks Foundation, Bangalore, Karnataka, India), S. Kainur, (Crosslinks Foundation, Bangalore, Karnataka, India)

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Reimagining Civic Technologies for the Urban Poor in Indian Cities

S. Kesavan (1) ; S. Kainur, (1)
(1) Crosslinks Foundation, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

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Introduction: People-centred economic transformation will play an important role in realizing inclusive and sustainable development in an increasingly urbanizing world. UN member states have therefore accorded a central place to “Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable” as Goal 11 on the “road to dignity” in the December Synthesis report of the Secretary-General on the post-2015 sustainable development agenda. According to UN-Habitat, the UN agency for human settlements, around 33% of the urban population in the developing world in 2012 were living in slums. Urbanization in India, like in other low and middle-income developing countries, has been characterized by environmental degradation, deepening economic divide and rampant proliferation of slum settlements that house close to 100 million urban poor in 640 cities and towns. Slum dwellers have a poor quality of life as they are deprived of access to basic services in the area of water and sanitation, electric power, street lights, healthcare and education. Slum settlements have also been reported to have become breeding grounds for criminal incidents and other unlawful activities thus jeopardizing public safety in the neighbourhood.  Moreover, greater exposure to adverse environmental conditions in the form of polluted water and air, makes the slum inhabitants particularly vulnerable to the adverse impacts of climate change.  

Problem: The poor and disadvantaged slum dwellers suffer from a persistent digital and financial exclusion that prevents the fruits of Indian's economic growth from truly percolating to them. However, in spite of the rapidly deteriorating living standards of the urban poor, most government programs have paid little attention to their plight. For example, Government of India has recently embarked on an ambitious multi-year program to create 100 smart cities with an investment of over USD 1 Billion every year. The proposed initiative aims to harness the power of technology to create profound changes in how cities operate and to deliver more effective governance to their residents. While the smart city program has a strong focus on increased competitiveness and economic growth through technology-driven urban improvements, the challenges faced by slum settlements are not sufficiently emphasized. The National Optical Fiber Network (NOFN), is Government of India’s largest nation-wide optical network initiative that aims to extend broadband connectivity to 600 million rural citizens of India across 2.5 lakh village offices in the country by 2017. Once again, the initiative fails to address the needs of the urban poor in slum communities since it’s primarily focused on the empowerment of rural masses through broadband Internet.

Uni-Fi Architecture: In this paper, we present and discuss a universal and cost-effective broadband network architecture called “Uni-Fi” that is geared towards advancing the needs of slum dwellers in Indian cities through superior service provisioning, improved governance and a better quality of life. Each Uni-Fi node in a slum community comprises three key components: i) Wireless Streetlights with integrated cameras for public lighting, broadband delivery and remote surveillance by public safety agencies, ii) Community Kiosks that serve as broadband training centres and single-window facilitation units for government welfare schemes for low-income slum dwellers, iii) eCommerce/Deals platforms that list and sell daily-use items and other services at deep discounts to them. Uni-Fi nodes in a city are networked and managed centrally with an easy-to-use, drag-and-drop interface for transferring relevant municipal content to these devices. 

Methodology and Results: A detailed techno-economic analysis was carried out to quantify and compare direct and indirect benefits of the Uni-Fi approach with competing multi-layer overlay options for varying network scales, ranging from 100 to 1000-node networks. The study observed a reduction in total cost of network ownership in the range of 30-60% for Uni-Fi over 5 years, besides accruing multiple socio-economic benefits to the state. Uni-Fi is being currently rolled out as a six-month pilot across 5 slum areas in Bangalore city in Karnataka state for proof-of-concept testing and further architectural refinements prior to scale-up.

16:05

Transforming the Urban Fabric to a Solar City: Market, Finance, and Policy Factors for Infrastructure-Scale PV Deployment in Amsterdam, London, Munich, New York, Seoul, and Tokyo

J. Taminiau (University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, United States of America), J. Byrne, (University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, United States of America)

Abstract details
Transforming the Urban Fabric to a Solar City: Market, Finance, and Policy Factors for Infrastructure-Scale PV Deployment in Amsterdam, London, Munich, New York, Seoul, and Tokyo

J. Taminiau (1) ; J. Byrne, (1)
(1) University of Delaware, Center for Energy and Environmental Policy, Newark, Delaware, United States of America

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A significant and sustained transition to a renewable energy future required to avoid further climate change continues to elude societies. Meanwhile, cities play an increasingly important role as they have propelled themselves onto the global climate change stage and have engaged in polycentric networks. To achieve substantial energy transformation while capturing the dynamic and important role reserved for the world’s cities, this article reconsiders finance-policy-market interactions by positioning the build-out of a particular renewable energy technology, photovoltaic (PV) energy, as a commitment to infrastructure-scale development. The concept of the so-called ‘solar city’ [1] is analyzed where large-scale deployment of urban PV essentially transforms the urban fabric into an urban renewable energy power plant as the strategy utilizes the vast rooftop real estate available in all cities. More specifically, a capital market strategy to finance the infrastructure-scale implementation of urban PV is evaluated for six case study cities that have taken up active global roles – Amsterdam, London, Munich, New York City, Seoul, and Tokyo. The paper makes clear the substantial potential of the solar city concept in each location and outlines a practical financing strategy to realize the potential.

[1] Byrne, J., Taminiau, J., Kurdgelashvili, L., & Kim, K. (2015). A review of the solar city concept and methods to assess rooftop solar electric potential, with an illustrative application to the city of Seoul. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 830-844. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.08.023