Our Common Future Under Climate Change

International Scientific Conference 7-10 JULY 2015 Paris, France

Menu
  • Home
  • Zoom Interactive Programme
Cliquer pour fermer

Thursday 9 July - 16:30-18:00 UNESCO Fontenoy - ROOM XII

3328 - Climate Change Challenges, Adaptation Barriers and Responses

Parallel Session

Lead Convener(s): S. Shackleton (Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa), S. Facknath (University of Mauritius, Moka, Mauritius)

16:30

Why is socially-just climate change adaptation in sub-Saharan Africa so challenging? A review of barriers identified from empirical cases

S. Shackleton (Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa), G. Ziervogel (University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa)

Abstract details
Why is socially-just climate change adaptation in sub-Saharan Africa so challenging? A review of barriers identified from empirical cases

S. Shackleton (1) ; G. Ziervogel (2)
(1) Rhodes University, Environmental Science, Grahamstown, South Africa; (2) University of Cape Town, Department of environmental and geographical sciences, Cape Town, South Africa

Abstract content

To enhance understanding of the process of climate change adaptation and to facilitate the planning and implementation of sustainable adaptation strategies, deeper consideration of the factors that impede adaptation is required. Barriers to climate change adaptation are, consequently, being increasingly reported. But, despite this progress, knowledge of barriers that hamper adaptation in developing countries remains limited, especially in relation to underlying causes of vulnerability and low adaptive capacity. To further improve understanding of barriers to adaptation and identify gaps in the state-of-the-art knowledge, this paper presents a synthesis of empirical literature from sub-Saharan Africa focusing on vulnerable, natural resource dependent communities and livelihoods. Our review illustrates that:  1) local level studies that reveal barriers to adaptation are diverse, although there is a propensity for studies on small-holder farmers; 2) many of the studies identify several barriers to adaptation, but appreciation of their interactions and compounded impacts remains scarce; and 3) most of the barriers uncovered relate broadly to biophysical, knowledge and financial constraints on agricultural production and rural development. More hidden and under-acknowledged political, social and psychological barriers are rarely mentioned, unless captured in studies that specifically set out to investigate these. We argue that research on barriers needs to start asking why these barriers emerge, how they work together to shape adaptation processes, who they affect most, and what is needed to overcome them.

16:40

Africa's woes with climate change: what difference can collaborative efforts make?

E. Madela-Mntla (ICSU Regional Office for Africa, Pretoria, South Africa)

Abstract details
Africa's woes with climate change: what difference can collaborative efforts make?

E. Madela-Mntla (1)
(1) ICSU Regional Office for Africa, Pretoria, South Africa

Abstract content

Background: Africa occupies a unique position when it comes to Climate Change challenges. It is one of the most vulnerable continents yet has very limited capacity for adaptation and recovery. Some of its challenges owe to its poor economic and social developmental states. A brief illustration of this:

According to the UN Office of The High Representative For The Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries And Small Island Developing States (UN-OHRLLS), of the 48 Least Developed countries (LDCs), 34 are in Africa; of the 31 Landlocked developing countries (LLDCs), 15 are in Africa; and of the 39 Small Island Developing States (SIDS), 8 are in Africa.  Africa

 

Climate Change challenges that accompany this situation include those associated with sea-level rise and changes in coastal and marine resources, which have very serious consequences particularly for SIDS; biodiversity and ecosystems changes, which have a negative impact on tourism, food security and other socio-ecosystems services; frequent and severe natural disasters like mudslides, floods, droughts and veld fires; poor infrastructure, leading to high transportation and communication costs. 

 

The ultimate result of these challenges is a ripple effect on health and human well-being, availability of land and water resources, management of waste, renewable energy options, infrastructure choices as well as national finances. Resilience declines, mortality rates go up, life expectancies decline and ultimately sustainable socio-economic development is retarded. Needless to say, some countries in Africa have a fair level of development, but they are not immune to some of these regional impacts of climate change. The cost of adaptation rises by the day in a region already facing many challenges like poverty. The IPCC 2007 Report estimates that the cost of adaptation to climate change in Africa could amount to at least 5 to 10% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and other projected impacts like increased water stress, reduction in yields from rain-fed agriculture, as well as an increase in arid and semi-arid land could worsen in the next few years (Report. Summary for Policy Makers, IPCC, 2007). Considering the scale of poverty for most African populations, adaptation is costly, it’s about survival.

 

Call for Concerted Action: Africa is generally reported as one of the least environmental polluters because of its low industrial development. However, it stands to suffer dire consequences from the effects of climate change. Information available points to evidence that all sectors will be generally affected. Why then, you may ask, is there no or poor concerted response to mitigate the impacts. We take a closer look at the key role players on the continent and how their collaborative efforts could positively impact Africa’s climate change mitigation and adaptation attempts.

16:50

African Climate Change Challenges : Innovative Climate Adaptation Practices in Ghana

A. Yeboah Obeng (Foresight Generation Group, Cantonments - Accra, Ghana)

Abstract details
African Climate Change Challenges : Innovative Climate Adaptation Practices in Ghana

A. Yeboah Obeng (1)
(1) Foresight Generation Group, Environment and Ecosystems Division, Cantonments - Accra, Ghana

Abstract content

INTRODUCTION

Recent studies by IFPRI suggest crop yields across sub-Saharan Africa may decline 5-22% by 2050, pushing large numbers of people deeper into in hunger and poverty as both of Africa's staple crops, maize and sorghum, are expected to be badly hit by increasing severe  weather.

Climate Change and its adverse impacts is been felt across many regions of  Ghana and also in the majority of ACP states, this project has been under implementation  since  2012 particularly  as a solution to the visible effects and impacts of erratic climatic patterns affecting crop and animal production in catchment communities in Ghana whiles encouraging environmentally friendly practices by farmers, also this project seeks to promote innovative ICT Climate driven agricultural practices and policies  which has successfully increased agricultural productivity and profits in catchment communities and have proved to be very resilient to climate change on agriculture for the targeted farming communities thereby improving food security in the project’s catchment towns in Ghana and replication prospects in other African countries.

DESCRIPTION

ITU data suggest that mobile penetration reached 84.8 per cent in 2011, compared with fixed line penetration of 1.14 per cent, although the number of individual subscribers may be lower than that in practice, also mobile network coverage is not uniform across Ghana as areas that lack coverage are typically those with small population centers, which cannot economically support the installation of a base station. Ghana’s mobile networks were in the past was predominantly second generation (2G) GSM technology which did not provide data connectivity however there has been major upgrade to faster third generation (3G) Technology which is enabling many citizens and businesses to enjoy the enormous benefits of faster mobile telephone and data services across Ghana.

BEST CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTIONS PRACTICES INAGRICULURE

Setting up virtual online farmer association meetings – To enable farmers from different farming towns and communities to communicate and shear challenges and the problems they have been facing in their villages, access to financing, new agricultural practices and new innovative systems and practices including market information and latest prices for agriculture produce and farm crops. Remote col­laboration and applications of ICT’s for virtual interactions will significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions caused by travel. 0.5 billion tonnes CO2e can be saved without any major investments .

Agriculture e-commerce – we have successfully assisted farmers to sell their farm produce through selected Messaging Applications on mobile devices of farmers and that of our project field teams assisted farmers to be in touch with buyers of their farm produce without the need for the farmers to travel long distances to sell their foods at nearby marketing centers , by this online transaction fuel usage and emission by vehicles have been saved and time and money have been saved for the farmers using this service depending on uptake, these solutions can avoid more than a billion tonnes of CO2e.

17:00

Scaling up adaptation in Africa - barriers and enablers

P. Urquhart (Independent analyst, Climate resilient development and adaptation, South Africa)

Abstract details
Scaling up adaptation in Africa - barriers and enablers

P. Urquhart (1)
(1) Independent researcher, Cape Town, South Africa

Abstract content

A critical question as the adaptation discourse and practice matures in Africa relates to how to scale up adaptation in a way that is sustainable, and promotes social justice goals. A relevant point concerns the types of transformations that are needed in structures and processes to support and scale up sustainable adaptation. There is no doubt that governance institutions at different levels have a decisive role to play in these transformations. Currently, we have incomplete, under-resourced and fragmented institutional frameworks and overall low levels of adaptive capacity, especially competency at local government level, to manage complex socio-ecological change. Structural poverty and inequity are common found many countries. Despite these commonalities, the local context for adaptation differs not only between countries, but between sub-national regions and indeed within localities, for different groupings of people. So how do we begin to identify the kind of steps needed on the transformation pathway? The IPCC 5th Assessment Report identified a number of key principles for building adaptive capacity and climate resilience, based on extensive assessment of the academic and grey literature, on adaptation in Africa. The principles point to necessary changes in policy and practice, and to the role of adaptive management and social and institutional learning in scaling up adaptation. This presentation will examine the potential of these principles to play a role in overcoming key barriers towards scaling up sustainable adaptation in Africa, and raise questions for discussion on the social and process dimensions of enabling scaling up. 

17:10

Panel discussion:

Abstract details
Panel discussion:
Abstract content

Dr Edith Madela-Mntla, ICSU Regional Office for Africa, South Africa, e.mntla@icsu-africa.org

Abstract details
Dr Edith Madela-Mntla, ICSU Regional Office for Africa, South Africa, e.mntla@icsu-africa.org
Abstract content

Dr Gina Ziervogel, University of Cape Town, South Africa, gina.ziervogel@uct.ac.za

Abstract details
Dr Gina Ziervogel, University of Cape Town, South Africa, gina.ziervogel@uct.ac.za
Abstract content

Ms Penny Urquhart, Independent consultant and lead author of Africa Chapter, Working Group II, AR5, motswiri@iafrica.com

Abstract details
Ms Penny Urquhart, Independent consultant and lead author of Africa Chapter, Working Group II, AR5, motswiri@iafrica.com
Abstract content

Prof Sunita Fracknath, University of Mauritius, Mauritius, suni@uom.ac.mu

Abstract details
Prof Sunita Fracknath, University of Mauritius, Mauritius, suni@uom.ac.mu
Abstract content