Our Common Future Under Climate Change

International Scientific Conference 7-10 JULY 2015 Paris, France

Menu
  • Home
  • Zoom Interactive Programme
Cliquer pour fermer

Wednesday 8 July - 17:30-19:00 UPMC Jussieu - Amphi 25

2235 - Reinforcing Resilience

Parallel Session

Lead Convener(s): C. Pritchard (The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom)

Convener(s): S. Huq (International Center for Climate Change and Development (ICCCAD), Dhaka, Bangladesh)

17:30

Building resilience in dryland Africa

C. Toulmin (IIED, London, United Kingdom)

Abstract details
Building resilience in dryland Africa

C. Toulmin (1)
(1) IIED, London, United Kingdom

Abstract content

This presentation outlines IIED’s experience on building resilience in dryland Africa. Drawing on a range of field sites, we show the timeframe and process for strengthening local capacity in decision-making, in ways which provide sound public investment choices. Between 1980 and 2012, it is reckoned that the annual damage from extreme-weather related events rose from $20b to 150b, totalling close to US$2 trillion, of which only 1Ž4 was insured. Examples include floods in Bangladesh and Thailand, typhoons in the Caribbean and droughts in the West African Sahel and Horn of Africa. Poor people and nations have been particularly vulnerable to the impacts of these events; people living in countries with a low Human Development Index make up only 11% of those exposed to hazards but account for 53% of disaster mortality.

Even if we manage to cut greenhouse gas emissions rapidly and effectively from today, we must anticipate 20-30 years of growing impacts from climate change due to lags in the global atmospheric system (IPCC, 2014). Drought, floods, and heat waves are all likely to increase in both frequency and intensity. The impact of tropical storms and associated sea surges will be amplified by sea-level rise. Disaster preparedness is key to help minimise loss of life and property, as well as speeding recovery post-disaster. “Resilience” has become a widely used term to describe the quality of human-environment systems and their response to disaster. In the recent study by the Royal Society of building resilience to extreme weather events, resilience is taken as “encompassing more than merely coping with individual extreme weather events; it means looking at the capacity of individuals, communities and systems to not only survive, but also adapt and grow in the face of stress and shocks.“ While “resilience” has spawned an increasing number of definitions, essentially it refers to our ability to deal with changes, in terms of reducing the risk of a hazard, and minimising the subsequent impacts.

Building resilience to extreme weather needs a systems approach, which involves investing in a combination of technical, economic/financial, and institutional dimensions. When faced with a threat such as drought or flooding, the first instinct is to invest in hardware – such as dams to capture and store water for dry periods, or sea-walls to protect from floodwater. And such tangible infrastructure is clearly very important. But alongside such investment in the physical hardware of protection, there are a range of vital intangible investments needed in the software of institutions for managing variable resources, and sharing risk. Institutions may be invisible, but their strength can make a big difference in how societies cope with disaster. Building resilience also requires shared action and responsibility at local, national and international levels, by the public and private sectors, local communities and non-governmental organisations. We will use the case of northern Kenya, Mali and Senegal to illustrate this systems approach, and the role that different actors need to play.

17:45

Testing and Piloting Climate Smart technologies in Pastoral and Agro Pastoral systems; The case of Ijara sub-county, Garissa County in Kenya

E. Okiri (Kenya Agricultural Livestock Research Organization, NAIROBI, Kenya), M. Okoti (Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization, Nairobi, Kenya)

Abstract details
Testing and Piloting Climate Smart technologies in Pastoral and Agro Pastoral systems; The case of Ijara sub-county, Garissa County in Kenya

E. Okiri (1) ; M. Okoti (2)
(1) Kenya Agricultural Livestock Research Organization, Environment and Climate Change, NAIROBI, Kenya; (2) Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization, Environment and Climate Change Research, Nairobi, Kenya

Abstract content

Ijara is one of the six sub-counties that form the Garissa County in North-Eastern Kenya; it falls into agro-ecological zone V-VI: temperatures range from 15ºC – 38ºC and rainfall is bimodal ranging between 700-1000 mm per annum. The average relative humidity is 68%. The sub-county covers an area of 10,000 km², with more than 90% of the land as trust land. The population within the sub-county was estimated at 100,000 during the 2009 national population census, with a population growth rate of 3.7%, while the poverty index stood at 63% with over 90% of households depending on pastoralism. The main economic livelihood of the inhabitants of Garissa County is livestock keeping. The pastoral households face a number of challenges that constrain their ability to employ productive systems effectively. These include among others population growth; the allocation of land for other purposes such as agriculture and wildlife conservancies; inadequate maintenance of infrastructure such as roads and earth dams; poor planning resulting in haphazard creation of water points; insecurity in Somalia; unsustainable management of land, water and other natural resources; and deteriorating livestock management practices. These issues are exacerbated by climate change, which has led to environmental degradation such as loss of biodiversity and soil erosion. Climate change is also a driver of poor resource management, as people resort to increasingly unsustainable coping strategies such as charcoal production to manage recurrent shocks to their livelihoods. To deal with challenges affecting major livelihoods in the county and to reinforce the resilience of the community, the Kenya Agricultural Livestock Research Organization (KALRO) and International Development Research Centre (IDRC) project used various approaches including reconnaissance surveys; Risk and Vulnerability Assessment, including downscaling of climate information; and participatory identification of viable adaptation options. These adaptation options were piloted through farmer field schools. The project also organized field days and exchange visits in fodder production and livestock management as part of stakeholder capacity building, with a mix of adaptation options to establish pastures at the individual farm level. The downscaled climatic information indicates that Ijara sub-county is getting warmer. This coupled with increased climate variability implies that planning for appropriate adaptation options is mandatory. In order to counter the expected loss of livestock and subsequent livelihoods, a mix of adaptation options needs to be put in place in the sub-county. A key option is the establishment of pastures at the individual farm level. Results from the project’s fodder component showed that the establishment of rain-fed Sudan grass is feasible as both a short-term and a long term adaptation strategy. The grass is highly adaptable in the region and gave an average yield of 24 tonnes/hectare/year. This can support up to 16 milking cows per year, and so can contribute greatly to food security at the household level. The benefit-cost ratio was 1.25. Socio-cultural and economic changes had negatively affected the traditional livestock management practices e.g. breeding management. After a series of capacity building initiatives, households started putting in place measures to improve their livestock herd. These included selecting of breeding males and females; castration of excess males; avoiding the use of polled bucks; culling of one testicle males; taking care in the administration of drugs; adoption of camels as opposed to cattle – it was a cultural taboo for them to keep camels despite camels’ better resilience to climatic shocks compared to cattle. Study/exposure tours had a strong positive influence on agricultural technology adoption among pastoralists. From the project initiatives, the farmers’ ability to perceive climate change and related climate variability was a key precondition for their choice to invest in fodder production and conservation. Demonstration and information allowed the households, and also policy makers, to make rational decisions on investment options.

17:55

Are we ready to scale-out climate-smart agriculture in South Asia?

P. Aggarwal (CCAFS, IWMI, New Delhi, India), K.-C. Arun (CCAFS, IWMI, New Delhi, India), B. Paresh (CCAFS, IWMI, New Delhi, India), M. Jat (CIMMYT, New Delhi, India), P. Thornton (ILRI, Nairobi, Kenya), A. Jarvis (CIAT, Cali, Colombia)

Abstract details
Are we ready to scale-out climate-smart agriculture in South Asia?

P. Aggarwal (1) ; KC. Arun (1) ; B. Paresh (1) ; M. Jat (2) ; P. Thornton (3) ; A. Jarvis (4)
(1) CCAFS, IWMI, New Delhi, India; (2) CIMMYT, New Delhi, India; (3) ILRI, Nairobi, Kenya; (4) CIAT, Cali, Colombia

Abstract content

Recent IPCC report and several other studies indicate a probability of 10-40% loss in crop production in India and other countries of South Asia with increases in temperature by 2070-2100 and decrease in irrigation water unless steps are started now to increase our adaptive capacity. There could be significant losses in some crops such as wheat even in short-term. Droughts, floods, tropical cyclones, heavy precipitation events, hot extremes, and heat waves are known to negatively impact agricultural production, and farmers’ livelihood. The projected increase in these events will result in greater instability in food production and threaten livelihood security of farmers. Increased production variability could be perhaps the most significant impact of global impact change. Early signs of decrease in yields due to changing weather have started becoming visible.

Several technological, institutional and policy interventions have been proposed that can help us adapt to climate change as well as to current and future weather variability. These include simple adaptation practices such as change in planting dates and crop varieties. Additional strategies for increasing our adaptive capacity include bridging yield gaps to augment production, deployment of adverse climate tolerant genotypes and diversified land use systems, the use of solar irrigation, assisting farmers in coping with current climatic risks through providing weather linked value-added advisory services to farmers and crop/weather insurance, and improved land and water use management and policies. It is interesting to note that most of the proposed adaptation options, if implemented scientifically, come with large mitigation co-benefits.

CCAFS is scaling out the Climate-Smart Villages (CSVs) model in several countries, including in South Asia, to promote climate-smart agriculture (CSA).  Climate Smart Villages are sites where a portfolio of the most appropriate technological and institutional interventions, determined by the local community, are implemented to increase food production, enhance adaptive capacity and reduce emissions. Interventions are bespoke to each village but the concept lends itself to be applied in any region under the right circumstances. Initial results suggest a large potential to maximize synergies among different interventions in order to scale out CSA.

While most of these interventions have indeed shown increased production, resilience and even mitigation, their area coverage is still small. This paper argues that evidence base for many of these interventions is still limited and we need enough context specific targeted knowledge about them before they can be applied on a large scale. In addition, lack of appropriate ‘business models’ around these interventions limits scaling-out efforts.

18:05

The impact of bioenergy development on the climate resilience of vulnerable communities in Kenya

S. Abrar (Edinburgh University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom)

Abstract details
The impact of bioenergy development on the climate resilience of vulnerable communities in Kenya

S. Abrar (1)
(1) Edinburgh University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Abstract content

The purpose of this project is to examine whether bioenergy developments have an impact on the climate resilience of vulnerable communities in Kenya. Interviews were conducted with professionals and several projects and programmes were visited on site. The research, based on evidence, shows that traditional use of solid biomass, which is the most popular source of energy in Kenya, is believed to have a negative impact on climate resilience. However, most of the interviews and projects visited have also demonstrated that, in certain conditions and under specific circumstances, bioenergy developments can reveal strong climate resilience characteristics. If they cannot by themselves improve considerably the resilience to climate change, some of them, when combined with measures and initiatives aimed at improving the life of the most vulnerable, do achieve this purpose. This study also demonstrates, once again, how important it is for any project, programme or technology to address the specific needs and tastes of the populations they intend to serve and how engagement, empowerment and ownership by the communities is key to achieve success. A higher consideration and respect for local cultures and ways of living, promoting a grass-­â€root approach, encouraging collective actions through capacity building and awareness raising, and finally providing financial and political support, will help generate more suitable and targeted technologies and programmes, including those related to bioenergy, that would improve the climate resilience of vulnerable communities in Kenya and elsewhere. 

18:15

Multiple benefits of biochar: Synergism or trade offs

E. Yeboah (CSIR-Soil Research Institute, Kumasi, Ghana)

Abstract details
Multiple benefits of biochar: Synergism or trade offs

E. Yeboah (1)
(1) CSIR-Soil Research Institute, Microbiology, Kumasi, Ghana

Abstract content

Poor soil fertility is a key constraint to improving farm productivity and farmer livelihoods in sub-Saharan Africa. The search for sustainable soil management practices is still on. Biochar, a pyrolysed biomass in recent years has gained international recognition to improve soil productivity.There are however limited research on biochar in Ghana to warrant government policy. A field study was conducted in the major season of 2012 in the semi-deciduous forest zone and the Guinea savanna agroecological zones of Ghana. The objective was to determine soil management scenarios that will enhance the beneficial effect of biochar application to soils. The treatment were control no amendments, 2 t/ha biochar and 4 t/ha biochar. Each main treatment received 0, 30, 60 and 90 KgN/ha. The test crop was maize. 4 t/ha biochar + 90kg N/ha increased maize yield indices across sites. Biochar increased N use efficiency and improved gravimetric soil moisture contents across sites. The synergistic effect rather than tradeoffs of the biochar technology to address energy use of the smallholder farmer through the use of efficient cookstoves, the bio-physical constraints in the context of soil improvements to increase food security, soil carbon sequestration for climate change mitigation as well as the socioeconomic constraints of the smallholder farmer needs to be explored for wider adoption of the biochar technology

18:25

Moving from climate vulnerability to Resilience: a case study of Bangladesh

S. Huq (International Center for Climate Change and Development (ICCCAD), Dhaka, Bangladesh)

Abstract details
Moving from climate vulnerability to Resilience: a case study of Bangladesh

S. Huq (1)
(1) International Center for Climate Change and Development (ICCCAD), Dhaka, Bangladesh

Abstract content

Bangladesh has been identified well over a decade ago as being one of the most vulnerable countries to the potential adverse impacts of human induced climate change . Over the last decade the country has been one of the first of the Least developed Countries (LDCs) to carry out their National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) as mandated by the United National Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) as it's 7th Conference of Parties (COP7) held in Marrakceh, Morocco in 2001 under the Marrakech Accords, which provided technical assistance and financial support to the LDCs for carrying out the NAPAs.

Subsequently the Government of Bangladesh built on the NAPA which was only meant to identify urgent and immediate adaptation actions, to develop a more elaborate and longer-term Bangladesh climate Change Strategy and Action Plan (BCCSAP) which has six pillars and forty actions. These actions have been funded by creating two Climate Change funds, one with the Government of Bangladesh's own finances and the other with donors contributions. Both the funds together have now funded over three hundred projects to tackle climate Change . While most of them are adaptation related a a few are also mitigation. Related as mitigation was one of the six pillars of the BCCSAP.

Thus over the last decade Bangladesh, including the government as well as other stakeholders such as civil society, universities, media and private sector have already invested in various activities to tackle climate Change and as a result have climbed up a knowledge ladder that enhances the collective understanding of what is needed. The latest development in this journey of tackling the adverse impacts of climate Change is to focus on Resilince as opposed to Vulnerability, so, while the focus until now had been on identifying vulnerability and helping to build adaptive capacity it has now moved to identifying underlying characteristics of resilience and building on them.  This is a much more positive agenda and enables all the relevant actors to focus on their strengths and build on those strengths rather than focus on vulnerability and only invest on risk management alone. This is also in many ways a transition from investing in incremental adaptation to transformational adaptation using the climate change challenge as opportunity.

18:35

Panel discussion

C. Pritchard (The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom), S. Huq (International Center for Climate Change and Development (ICCCAD), Dhaka, Bangladesh), C. Toulmin (IIED, London, United Kingdom)

Abstract details
Panel discussion
Abstract content