Our Common Future Under Climate Change

International Scientific Conference 7-10 JULY 2015 Paris, France

Menu
  • Home
  • Zoom Interactive Programme
Cliquer pour fermer

Wednesday 8 July - 14:30-16:00 UNESCO Fontenoy - ROOM XII

2243 - Multi scale adaptation and responses in vulnerable coastal sectors under climate change risks

Parallel Session

Lead Convener(s): A. Sánchez-Arcilla (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Barcelona, Spain)

Convener(s): N. Bednarsek (University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98105, United States of America), E. Joakim (University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada), R. Mathevet (CNRS UMR 5175 CEFE, Montpellier, France)

14:30

Coastal adaptation under high-end climate change

A. Sánchez-Arcilla (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Barcelona, Spain), R. Nicholls (University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom), J. Hinkel (Global Climate Forum, Berlin, Germany)

Abstract details
Coastal adaptation under high-end climate change

A. Sánchez-Arcilla (1) ; R. Nicholls (2) ; J. Hinkel ()
(1) Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Maritime Engineering Lab. (LIM/UPC), Barcelona, Spain; (2) University of Southampton, School of civil engineering and the environment and tyndall centre for climate change research, Southampton, United Kingdom

Abstract content

The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and the resulting level of global warming remain uncertain. The thermal inertia of sea water commits us to a continued increase of mean sea level at decadal to centennial scales. The increase of human pressure and economic development in coastal zones will aggravate the problem. Conventional hard coastal defences are costly and increase the risk of catastrophic consequences in case of failure and may exacerbate the loss of territory (e.g. wetlands) through coastal squeeze. Adaptation needs to be a long-term process covering a wide range of management strategies.

To face this challenge, advanced scientific information on the processes and impacts will be a key element in order to develop robust adaptation pathways. Such pathways must take into account plausible high-end sea level rise scenarios and changes in storminess as well as quantitative impact projections. This information will allow an objective definition of tipping points for adaptation, the effect of feedbacks between the various components of the coastal system and the efficiency of novel coastal interventions. The adaptation pathways will allow defining a sequential set of interventions that facilitate the maintenance of coastal zones under all climate scenarios. The role of novel solutions promoting natural accretion mechanisms and using eco-morphodynamics to reduce coastal mobility needs to be explored as this has the potential to increase our chances to maintain healthy coastal systems under a variety of climates. From here we shall derive advance information on when, where and how to act, especially if change is at the high end, and this will facilitate the sustainability of these areas.

Within the EU research project RISES-AM- we are projecting impacts at global, regional and local scales. The global modelling is based on the DIVA code, addressing the flooding and erosion impacts worldwide. The regional modelling is based on a variety of hydro-morphodynamic models which reflect the site specific expertise and available model calibration/validation. As illustration for the Mediterranean we are analysing the Catalan and Croatian coast, the former with a sequence of models specially adjusted for this coastal sector and the second one with a regional adaptation of DIVA. The level of resolution and processes at this regional scale is much higher than for the global analyses, including surges, wave action and long shore and cross shore sediment transport components together with the human pressures and infrastructures existing along the coast.

The local dimension can be illustrated by the Ebro Delta and other small-scale Mediterranean deltas where both the vertical dynamics of the coastal plain and horizontal dynamics of the coastal fringe are being studied. For this particular case the suitability of “green” interventions based on promoting natural accretion is also being examined so as to assess its performance under present and future climate conditions. The resulting analysis will allow identifying and partially quantifying adaptation tipping points that will be presented in the paper. This will go associated to determining critical thresholds as a function of scale and related by way of illustration to the availability of space or sediment. The combination of climatic pressures, coastal responses and the expected socio economic evolution will be the building blocks for defining an adaptation pathway suited to the studied coastal areas, illustrated in the paper by the three scales mentioned above.

14:40

Responding to Changes in Coastal Zones

N. Bednarsek (University of Washington, Seattle, United States of America), T. Klinger, (Universtiy of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98105, United States of America)

Abstract details
Responding to Changes in Coastal Zones

N. Bednarsek (1) ; T. Klinger, (2)
(1) University of Washington, School of Marine Affairs, Seattle, United States of America; (2) Universtiy of Washington, School of marine and environmental affairs, Seattle, WA, 98105, United States of America

Abstract content

Changes in climate and associated stressors will impose critical changes in coastal ocean systems. We propose a session to address changes in the coastal ocean, using the California Current Large marine Ecosystem as a model system. The CCLME is a productive upwelling zone along the west coast of North America. It supports economically and culturally important fisheries and provides other essential ecosystem services. A large and growing population lives in the adjacent coastal zone. Climate and associated stressors are projected to influence circulation, productivity, and biogeochemical processes, including acidification and hypoxia, in the CCLME, with consequent effects on social and economic systems. In this session we will include perspectives that range from changes in physical and biogeochemical processes to those of ecosystem services and socio-economic responses. We will close the session with a forward-looking perspective on collective action. 

14:50

The Coastal Cities at Risk (CCaR) Project: Research advancing climate change adaptation planning and implementation in Metro Vancouver, Canada

L. Mortsch (University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada), G. Oulahen (Western University, London, Ontario, Canada), K. Tang (Western University, London, Ontario, Canada), Y. Klein (ACT, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada), K. Damude (University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada), E. Joakim (University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada), D. Harford (Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, BC, Canada)

Abstract details
The Coastal Cities at Risk (CCaR) Project: Research advancing climate change adaptation planning and implementation in Metro Vancouver, Canada

L. Mortsch (1) ; G. Oulahen (2) ; K. Tang (2) ; Y. Klein (3) ; K. Damude (1) ; E. Joakim (1) ; D. Harford (4)
(1) University of Waterloo, Geography, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada; (2) Western University, London, Ontario, Canada; (3) ACT, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; (4) Simon Fraser University, Adaptation to Climate Change Team, Public Policy School, Vancouver, BC, Canada

Abstract content

Many low-lying coastal cities, already coping with population growth, urbanization and economic, social, environmental and health challenges, are becoming increasingly exposed to climate change impacts related to rising sea levels and changing flooding risks. In order to respond to these challenges, proactive adaptation is becoming a fundamental and necessary response in a future that is likely to have increasingly frequent and more severe climate-related hazards. By understanding vulnerability and resilience, and their influence on adaptation planning and implementation, the capacity of these cities to address future climate change hazards and stressors can be improved.  A Canadian-funded international research project – Coastal Cities at Risk: Building Adaptive Capacity for Managing Climate Change in Coastal Megacities (CCaR) – seeks to explore these issues in Bangkok, Vancouver, Lagos, and Manila. This presentation highlights results from Metropolitan Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. It explores the unique challenges and opportunities in a complex urban environment that influence the effectiveness of adaptation planning and policy development.  A variety of thematic areas related to this issue were addressed, including physical, economic, social, institutional, and health while employing a broad range of scientific approaches from natural, social science and applied engineering. This presentation highlights the social science component and the advances made in the social and institutional themes.  Examples presented explore: the production of vulnerability to flood hazards, identifying indicators of resilience, and mainstreaming climate information.  Multiple methods such as literature synthesis, focus groups, interviews, surveys and content analysis were used in combination with social vulnerability and resilience indicator development and mapping.  The component on production of vulnerability to flood hazards applied a conceptual framework - across scales and across actors - to identify and situate factors that influence vulnerability, mapped vulnerability indicators and “ground truthed” results with key stakeholders.  Out of this research emerged an interest in developing resilience metrics, particularly examining how social resilience been defined in the climate change and hazards fields and what indicators have been developed for the neighborhood scale. From this literature review, an extensive list of metrics has been developed.  The “mainstreaming” exercise used a policy scan to assess how municipal, sub-national and federal government policies facilitate or constrain the incorporation of climate change information into decision-making for adapting to flood hazards. In the project, there was a strong commitment to engage with the community to access local information and expertise in order to ground the research but more importantly to initiate a two-way dialogue as a means of enhancing awareness and knowledge transfer.  This process has contributed to building local adaptation capacity as CCaR research results have been incorporated into municipal adaptation planning and implementation. 

15:00

Multi-scale adaptations to climate change and social-ecological sustainability in coastal areas

O. Barreteau (IRSTEA, Montpelier, France)

Abstract details
Multi-scale adaptations to climate change and social-ecological sustainability in coastal areas
Abstract content
15:10

A Psychological Perspective on Behavioural Adaptation Challenges to Climate Change in Coastal Cities of India

R. Mudaliar (Aix-Marseille Université-CNRS, Aix-en-Provence, France), P. Rishi (Indian Institute of Forest Management,Bhopal, INDIA, Bhopal,MP, India)

Abstract details
A Psychological Perspective on Behavioural Adaptation Challenges to Climate Change in Coastal Cities of India

R. Mudaliar (1) ; P. Rishi (2)
(1) Aix-Marseille Université-CNRS, UMR ESPACE 7300, Aix-en-Provence, France; (2) Indian Institute of Forest Management,Bhopal, INDIA, Human Resource Management, Bhopal,MP, India

Abstract content

Coastal India faces a perceived potential threat owing to the vast sea-side development and huge populations in the vicinity of the coast. Climate change in coastal areas is associated much with flooding, SLR, land inundation, storms, cyclones etc. India has been identified as one amongst 27 countries which are most vulnerable to the impacts of global warming related accelerated SLR (UNEP,1989).Therefore, there is a pressing need to address issues related to climate stress, adaptation, vulnerability and coping in coastal cities of India, especially from the psychological perspective. The established fact that anthropogenic factors account for one of the major contributors to climate change makes it necessary to probe into behavioral facets as in spite of the best possible efforts around the globe to combat climate change, it is felt that people are still not as seriously aware/ alarmed of the expected future risk as they should be. If environmental stressors persist chronically, they may lead to inner conflicts that can be psychologically disturbing for individuals and may even give rise to physiological, emotional, cognitive and behavioral changes.

 

In light of the above, the present behavioral study assessed the cognitive understanding of climate change, climate stress and actions and reactions of coastal people with a special focus on behavioral adaptation and subjective well being. The study was conducted on a sample of 454 adults, both males and females (Age 18 years and above) in two coastal megacities of India namely Mumbai and Chennai keeping in mind the coastal hazards and vulnerability issues associated with these cities (TERI,1996). Especially designed Climate change perception Inventory (CCPI) based on a four-point Likert type rating scale format was used to assess the respondents’ Climate Change Awareness (CCA), Climate Stress and Emotional Concern (CSEC),  Coping/Adaptation, Institutional Accountability (IA), and Coastal Subjective Well Being (CSWB).  Results indicated a good level of CCA and subjective well being among coastal people. Respondents were found to be experiencing a moderate amount of climate stress and were unable to fully cope with it. They expected more efforts on the part of government and environmental institutions for adapting with climate change in coastal cities and suggested various adaptive strategies in this regard. Results were interpreted in line with article 6 of New Delhi Work Program of UNFCCC (2007) in which special effort to foster psychological/behavioral change has been stressed through public awareness.

15:20

First results from the world biggest coral planting program (Baa atoll, Maldives)

F. Ducarme (Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France)

Abstract details
First results from the world biggest coral planting program (Baa atoll, Maldives)

F. Ducarme (1)
(1) Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Ecologie et Gestion de la Biodiversité, Paris, France

Abstract content

Session title: Ocean Change: Understanding and projecting the impacts ofwarming and acidification on natural and human systems

 

First results from the world biggest coral planting program (Baa atoll, Maldives)

 

This work presents the first results of the world’s biggest coral planting program, located in Baa atoll UNESCO Bioscphere reserve (Maldives), and led by SeaMarc / Marine Savers association, with scientific support from the MNHN.

Maldives is known as a very low island country, constituted of more than 1200 sandy islands not exceeding 2m high. This country shelters an extremely rich marine biodiversity along with a population of 400 000 inhabitants, but faces concerning threats from weather condition change, water acidification and sea level uprising. All these islands being constituted of coralline sand and protected from wave action thanks to coral reefs, the health of corals directly impacts the very existence of the islands, and severe erosion can already be observed in some urban islands with damaged reefs such as Malé.

The Marine Savers program has started planting coral frames in 2007 and standardized the methods and gears in 2010, on the basis of a crowd founding system financed by resort tourists. More than 3000 coral frames have been planted to date at different sites and depths, totalizing more than 200 000 coral grafts, from more than 20 different species of scleractinian corals. The frame growth have been surveyed, photographed and managed on a biannual basis, and >150 representative frames of different ages have been weighted in order to give a proxy for total biomass.

This study aims at providing a synthesis of these growth results and rate, along with observations on natural colonization by sessile, benthic and pelagic species. Results proved that this method can produce a substantial amount of coral biomass in a rather short time span, and recreate habitat conditions suitable for most reef species. Most coral species proved to be extremely site-sensitive, and show important growth discrepancies depending on slight condition differences.

Such experiment could help understanding growth and survival of different species of corals coral under different conditions, and provide an important technical basis for further restauration or ecological compensation projects. As the frames developed by Seamarc are moveable, this system also aims at developing a way to help conserving young coral sprouts in deeper waters during bleaching events in order to achieve quicker and better ecological resilience, and in a longer run selecting the more resistant genes for climate change adaptation.

15:30

Surviving from “rob” (tidal flood) – how local knowledge helps coastal villagers in Demak, Central Java

A.D. Ekaputri (Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Jakarta, Indonesia)

Abstract details
Surviving from “rob” (tidal flood) – how local knowledge helps coastal villagers in Demak, Central Java

AD. Ekaputri (1)
(1) Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Research Center for Population, Jakarta, Indonesia

Abstract content

Indonesia is an archipelago country with coastline spans more than 90,000 km, the fourth longest in the world. The coastal areas house around 60% of the total Indonesia population. However, in the past few decades these areas has been threatened by increasing sea level rise, including  Demak, a city located in the northern coast of Central Java. In 2010, Bedono, one village in Demak, suffered the most impact from “rob” or tidal flood with half of the village area sunked into sea, including villagers’ residences.  This has caused a significant number of local people lost their homes and livelihoods. With no sufficient guidelines on how to survive from “rob”, villagers forced themselves to adapt based on their own knowledge. A five-year research conducted by LIPI in Demak showed that villagers’ behavior to adapt depends on the level of sea rise. The extreme case where houses are permanently drowned, villagers relocate to neighbouring villages. For other cases, villagers elevate their houses’ floors, reschedule time to cook, prepare house cleaning utensils, and protect their children’s health. In the context of livelihood, villagers arrange the time to seed the fishpond so it can be harvested before tide comes and destruct the production process. One local knowledge that proves to be useful is silvofishery, integrating fishpond with planting mangroves. It has successfully decreased level of destruction in coastal areas as well as improving villager’s wellbeing. These adaptations based on local knowledge should be taken into account by the government to improve the climate adaptation strategies and programs.

15:40

Infrastructure and societal challenges in addressing climate impacts in the North Coast of São Paulo, Brazil

D. De Freitas (Technological Institute of Aeronautics, Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil), C. D. S. J. Wilson (Technological Institute of Aeronautics, Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil), F. M. D. G. Luiz (Federal University of São Paulo, Campus Baixada Santista, Santos, Brazil)

Abstract details
Infrastructure and societal challenges in addressing climate impacts in the North Coast of São Paulo, Brazil

D. De Freitas (1) ; CDSJ. Wilson (2) ; FMDG. Luiz (3)
(1) Technological Institute of Aeronautics, Department of water and environmental sanitation, Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil; (2) Technological Institute of Aeronautics, Engineering division of infrastructure, department of water and environmental sanitation., Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil; (3) Federal University of São Paulo, Campus Baixada Santista, Oceans institute, Santos, Brazil

Abstract content

Worldwide, coastal communities are challenged by the increase in frequency and magnitude of natural events associated with climate variability and change. During the last decade, several significant events such as storm surges, cyclones and sea level rise have caused substantial damage to coastal infrastructure and communities. For example, continuous erosion and frequent storm tide inundation threaten coastal settlements and infrastructure by making then more vulnerable to landslides and flooding, respectively. These issues demand special attention in developing countries, where populous irregular settlements (such as slums) are common in coastal areas, experiencing greater vulnerability to natural disasters and other environmental risks. Nevertheless, climate change and its related impacts are neither well understood nor taken into consideration at local and regional planning scales in developing countries. Brazil is an example of such problem. At the local scale, there are pressures related to settlement for construction and operational assets associated with port expansion and the development of oil and gas industry mega-infrastructure. At the state and national scales, there are political and economic pressures imposed by development associated with the Pre-Salt oil exploration offshore which does not consider local management needs and priorities on land use planning. In this study, we present the major findings of the RedeLitoral, a multidisciplinary project with the objective of evaluating the knowledge climate change impacts effects on society, built infrastructure and land use planning in a region experiencing fast development in the south-east of Brazil. Our results indicate that human settlement, mainly driven by tourism and mega-infrastructure developments, has induced urban sprawl towards the most vulnerable areas, making these populations and associated infrastructure more susceptible to the impacts of climate change. Fragmented and sectored licensing processes does not consider the cumulative and synergistic environmental effects resulting in inadequate public policies. Local coastal management initiatives show intense rearrangement, but changes are mostly focused in the ecological-economic zoning and creation of marine protected areas, and climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies are not a priority in the planning agenda.