Our Common Future Under Climate Change

International Scientific Conference 7-10 JULY 2015 Paris, France

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Thursday 9 July - 17:30-19:00 UPMC Jussieu - ROOM 307 - Block 24/34

3318 - Sustainable strategies to mitigate climate and improve public health in developed and developing countries

Parallel Session

Lead Convener(s): M. Pascal (Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Saint Maurice, France)

Convener(s): E. Von Schneidemesser (Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies, Potsdam, Germany), L. Tomasoni (CODATU, Lyon, France)


Norway's knowledge platform on SLCFs – holistic thinking and multiple benefits for climate change and air quality

V. Vestreng (Norwegian Environment Agency, Trondheim, Norway), M. M. Kvalevåg (Norwegian Environment Agency, Trondheim, Norway), S. Guttu (Norwegian Environment Agency, Trondheim, Norway), S. F. Skjellum (Norwegian Environment Agency, Trondheim, Norway)

Abstract details
Norway's knowledge platform on SLCFs – holistic thinking and multiple benefits for climate change and air quality

V. Vestreng (1) ; MM. Kvalevåg (1) ; S. Guttu (1) ; SF. Skjellum (1)
(1) Norwegian Environment Agency, Climate department, Trondheim, Norway

Abstract content

Short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs) are a relatively new field in a governmental context. In 2013, Norway published its first knowledge platform on SLCFs. The key objective was to perform an integrated assessment of climate, health and environmental effects of Norwegian emissions of SLCFs and propose measures and instruments for reducing such effects by 2030.  Achieving the 2-degree target relies on substantial CO2 reductions. The Norwegian knowledge platform focuses on how measures targeting SLCFs could complement CO2 mitigation measures.

The scientific knowledge was quite immature and developed rapidly in parallel with the Norwegian Environment Agency’s assessment.  This paper outlines methodological challenges and how these were approached to establish a framework for the analysis of measures. The development of different reduction strategies for consideration by the Norwegian Ministry of Climate and Environment, are discussed. The choice of metric to compare the climate effect of different SLCFs was a key to our analysis. Development of national BC and OC emission inventories and valuation of health effects were other essential building blocks to enable an integrated assessment of measures. Calculation of the net climate effect of measures, i.e. taking into account both warming and cooling effects of emission reductions, is also important.

The results show that in the short term, the climate effect of Norwegian annual emissions of SLCFs is comparable to that of CO2. Measures aimed at SLCFs cannot replace CO2 measures in either the short or the long term, but reduced emissions of SLCFs will reinforce the global climate benefits of rapid reductions in CO2 emissions. Thus, both SLCFs and CO2 emissions should be mitigated in order to reduce the rate of warming over the next decades.  

In some cases, we found that measures with a positive health impact had a negative climate impact.  Our study concludes that integrated approaches to assess climate change and air pollution may form a better basis for policy development. Currently, the Norwegian Environment Agency is considering how the SLCFs best can be included in the analysis of greenhouse gas reductions.


Improving health by acting on air pollution and climate change: the challenges faced by Chinese cities

T. Li (Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China)

Abstract details
Improving health by acting on air pollution and climate change: the challenges faced by Chinese cities

T. Li (1)
(1) Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Institute for environmental health and related product safety, Beijing , China

Abstract content

Improving health by acting on air pollution and climate change: the challenges faced by Chinese cities


Dr. Tiantian Li

Institute for Environmental Health and Related Product Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention


As the most iconic example of the air pollution and climate change in the world, China has experienced an economic expansion during the past decades which has led to a dramatic increase in emissions of both ambient pollutants and greenhouse gases. Heavy air pollution and temperature warming has been observed in China over the past century. China is also the biggest country for its population, and is confronted with the most rigorous aging population problem in the world. Global warming and aging are emerging 21st Century challenges. In addition, haze and heat are two major threads for public health in Chinese cities, as illustrated by the situation in Beijing. The haze pollution in Beijing became more and more serious in recent years. One of the worst episode in January 2013 lead to significant excess mortality. Between January 17 to January 31, at least 164 persons died because of high PM2.5 concentrations. Respiratory and cardiovascular diseases were especially sensitive to PM2.5. Reducing PM2.5 could therefore significantly improved health and well-being in Chinese city.

We also investigated the health risk tradeoffs among heat, population aging, and adaptation under a changing climate by integrating the full range of the climate models. We estimated the exposure-response relationship between observed daily mortality of persons 65 years of age and older and the temperature data in Beijing. Then, we obtained downscaled future temperature projections from 31 climate models and two future representative concentration pathways (RCPs) scenarios for Beijing. These two inputs were then combined to estimate future mortality related to heat effects, which were compared to heat-related mortality in the baseline period (1980s). Last, we incorporated population projections under three variant scenarios and the different heat adaptation scenarios to the above two inputs to project the changes of future heat-related mortality. 

Under the population high variation scenario, in the 2080s and RCP8.5, Beijing was projected to experience a median of 15894 heat-related deaths per year of persons 65 years of age and older, which is approximately 6 times the projected value for the population without variation scenario. In the 2080s, with the biggest adaptation (under the 30% adaptation scenarios), the increase in heat-related death is approximately 7.4 times and 2.6 times larger than in the 1980s in RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 respectively.

Aging population will enlarge the heat-related health risk under the warming climate. Even under the high adaptation scenario, by the 2080s, the heat-related deaths would still increase. Our results provided evidence that adaptation would diminish the magnitude of future heat-related health risk, but not completely offset the heat impact from climate change. Our findings can lead to improved understanding of public health intervention policy making and adaption strategy planning for the dual problems of climate change and aging population. 


Mitigating air pollution to achieve health and climate benefits

P. Kinney (Columbia University, Mailman School of Public Health, New York, NY, United States of America)

Abstract details
Mitigating air pollution to achieve health and climate benefits

P. Kinney (1)
(1) Columbia University, Mailman School of Public Health, Climate and Health Program, New York, NY, United States of America

Abstract content

Air quality is a major modifiable health burden around the world, especially in rapidly developing cities. Exposure to air pollution, including fine particles (PM2.5) and ozone, has adverse effects on human health throughout the lifespan.  Adverse effects of air pollution include the development of chronic diseases such as lung cancer, chronic heart and lung diseases, as well as adverse effects on the reproductive system and on neuro-development.  Action to mitigate air pollution brings immediate and lasting benefits for the health and well-being of the population.  In addition, well-designed air pollution mitigation actions have the potential to reduce societal impacts on the climate system.  In order to inform global, regional and urban scale air pollution and climate planning, there is a need for multi-scale health impact assessments that estimate the potential health impacts and/or benefits that may result from coordinated mitigation strategies.  We describe several such recent and/or ongoing efforts of this kind.  For example, the recently-completed AC-HIA project estimated the influence that policies aimed at reducing air pollution emissions could have on global, regional and urban public health in 2030 and 2050, compared to 2010, taking into account the influence of climate change and alternative air pollution mitigation scenarios.  Assessments were carried out across three different geographic scales with increasing spatial granularity, for the entire world, for Europe, and for the Paris metropolitan region.  To mitigation scenarios were evaluated: a business as usual scenario based on national regulations already on the books, and a maximum feasible reduction scenarios based on available technologies for air pollution control.  The results showed the potential for substantial increases in global deaths due to PM2.5 and ozone under the business as usual scenarios, especially in south and east Asia.  On the other hand, substantial health benefits could be achieved under the maximum feasible reduction scenario.  In general, health assessments carried out at finer spatial scales yielded greater health benefit estimates.  This and other studies are pointing the way to a new generation of tools for integrated air quality and climate planning.


The Importance of Revising Indonesia NAAQS for the Local Health Benefits and to Mitigate GHGs

H. Yulinawati (Universitas Trisakti, Jakarta, Indonesia)

Abstract details
The Importance of Revising Indonesia NAAQS for the Local Health Benefits and to Mitigate GHGs

H. Yulinawati (1)
(1) Universitas Trisakti, Jakarta, Indonesia

Abstract content

Indonesian government actively joins in efforts to reduce global GHGs emissions. Various regulations were issued such as Presidential Decree No. 61 of 2011 on the National Action Plan to Reduce Emissions of GHGs and Presidential Decree No. 71 of 2011 on the National GHGs Inventory System. Unfortunately, local air pollution issues seem left behind, even until these days many big cities in Indonesia do not have an adequate integrated air quality management, such as limited emission inventory, the NAAQS is not well enforced, and lack of monitoring equipment. Black carbon (BC), a constituent of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and tropospheric ozone (O3) are harmful air pollutants associated with premature mortality that also contribute to global climate change. Recent study shows that BC and O3 emission reductions would have immediate and multiple benefits for human health. Therefore, policy designed to reduce GHGs can have co-benefits for air quality or vice versa. This study examines the current Indonesia NAAQS 1999 compared to WHO AQG 2005, mainly on particulate matter (PM) and O3. This study also evaluates ambient monitoring data of PM and O3, and Indonesia’s current emission control measures targeting BC and ozone precursor. By linking these three issues above, this study simulates the impacts of mitigation measures on ambient concentrations of PM2.5 and O3 to calculate their associated changes in health-related benefits. The WHO AQG 2005 for PM2.5: 10 μg/m3 annual mean; 25 μg/m3 24-hour mean. While for PM10: 20 μg/m3 annual mean, 50 μg/m3 24-hour mean. As comparison, Indonesia NAAQS 1999 for PM2.5: 15 μg/m3 annual mean; 65 μg/m3 24-hour mean. For PM10: annual mean is not available, 150 μg/m3 24-hour mean. The WHO AQG 2005 provides interim targets as an approach to achieving the air quality guideline value. Indonesia, with higher levels of air pollution, should select a clear achievable interim target level based on air quality infrastructure. There is a substantial lack of monitoring stations for both PM2.5 and PM10; most monitored PM in Indonesia is TSP. It is very limited epidemiology studies related to air quality too. Therefore, it is not easy to show the health benefits of mitigating emissions of air pollutants and GHGs. Some mitigations exist such as emission control from industrial stacks, I/M, public transportation, and relatively new discourse on low-carbon infrastructure.  Revising Indonesia NAAQS is needed to make sure public health is guaranteed. Air quality and health co-benefits, because they are mainly local and near-term, offer better motivation for transformation to a low-carbon paradigm. It will be easier to set the target to mitigate the GHGs related to air pollutants.


Health co-benefits and co-harms of reducing indoor air-pollution in Sub Saharan Africa

R. Kawan (Institute of Public Health (IPH), Im Neuenheimer Feld,324,heidelberg, France)

Abstract details
Health co-benefits and co-harms of reducing indoor air-pollution in Sub Saharan Africa

R. Kawan (1)
(1) Institute of Public Health (IPH), Climate change and Health, Im Neuenheimer Feld,324,heidelberg, Germany

Abstract content

Health co-benefits and co-harms of reducing indoor air-pollution in Sub Saharan Africa

Kawan R1, Traoré I2, Sié A2, Yamamoto S3, Sauerborn R1

Local air pollution harms health

Household use of solid fuel is the most widespread source of indoor air pollution worldwide. Globally, 2.6% of all ill-health is attributable to indoor smoke from solid fuels, nearly all in poor regions. Solid fuels are extensively used for cooking and home heating in developing countries, especially in rural areas. Solid fuel is usually combusted in inefficient cook stoves, producing a variety of health-damaging gases and particles, such as black carbon, organic carbon, methane, and carbon monoxide. More than 1.6 million deaths and over 38.5 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were attributable to indoor smoke from solid fuels in 2000. Cooking with solid fuels is thus responsible for a significant proportion, about 3%, of the global burden of disease. Approximately 1.5 million deaths every year from respiratory infections can be attributed to the environment, including the effects of indoor air pollution. To encourage the use of cleaner burning fuels, the step is usually from wood to charcoal or kerosene and to Liquid Petrolium Gas might be effective  ways to reduce air pollution exposures.

Reaping climate co-benefits by reducing climate active pollutants

Recent IPCC report stressed the role of many causative agents of Indoor air pollution,as having in addition a greenhouse gas effect, in particular black carbon. Other common  pollutants  such  as  nitrogen  oxide,  sulfur  dioxide,  particulate matter and carbon monoxide  have been shown to be associated with several adverse health  events  such  asthma  attacks  and  incidence , chronic  obstructive  pulmonary  diseases   and lung cancer.

 From a climate policy angle, reducing CAPs (Climate active pollutants) reaps Health Co –benefits. There are some evidences that stove improvements can substantially reduce indoor air pollution and the risk of lung cancer,  respiratory diseases, Asthma, cataract, etc. Therefore, efforts should be made to reduce the burden of disease  through public health and primary care programmes. Programmes can be designed to encourage urban and rural households that use solid fuels to move up the “energy ladder” to cleaner fuels such as kerosene or liquid petroleum gas. Household changes to improve ventilation and behavioural modifications to reduce exposure could be the cost effective interventions to reduce the burden of diseases.

Avoiding co-harm

Co-harm is a negative health effect, which has never been mentioned in this context. Without smoke, indoor abundance of mosquitoes increases and there is a higher risk of malaria transmission. 2009). There is a need to couple interventions for less smoke with those against malaria. Air pollution reduction rarely promote the twin goals of protecting health, avoiding increase in malaria and climate but can pose tradeoffs. All particles are dangerous for health, for example, some are cooling, such as sulfates, and some warming, such as black carbon. Indeed elimination of all anthropogenic particles in the atmosphere, may be a major success for health and  would have only a minor net impact on climate.

Key words: Health co-benefits, climate change, black carbon, particulate matter, indoor air pollution, respiratory infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, public health, Sub-Saharan Africa