Our Common Future Under Climate Change

International Scientific Conference 7-10 JULY 2015 Paris, France

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Wednesday 8 July - 14:30-16:00 UNESCO Fontenoy - ROOM VIII

2220 - Landscape level adaptation and mitigation: integrating science, policy and practice

Parallel Session

Lead Convener(s): J. Förster (Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig, Germany), I. Nhantumbo, (International Institute for Environment and Development, Edinburgh, United Kingdom)

Convener(s): J. Kloos (United Nations University, Bonn, Germany), S. Lavorel (CNRS, Grenoble, France)

14:30

Adaptation Services : How biodiversity can support climate adaptation pathways

S. Lavorel (CNRS, Grenoble, France), M. Colloff (CSIRO, Canberra, Australia), S. Mcintyre (CSIRO, Canberra, Australia), M. Doherty (CSIRO, Canberra, Australia), M. Dunlop (CSIRO, canberra, Australia), H. Murphy (CSIRO, Atherton, Australia), D. Metcalfe (CSIRO, Brisbane, Australia), R. Wise (CSIRO, Canberra, Australia)

Abstract details
Adaptation Services : How biodiversity can support climate adaptation pathways

S. Lavorel (1) ; M. Colloff (2) ; S. Mcintyre (2) ; M. Doherty (2) ; M. Dunlop (3) ; H. Murphy (4) ; D. Metcalfe (5) ; R. Wise (6)
(1) CNRS, Laboratoire d'Ecologie Alpine, Grenoble, France; (2) CSIRO, Land and Water National Research Flagship, Canberra, Australia; (3) CSIRO, Land & water, canberra, Australia; (4) CSIRO, Land and water flagship, Atherton, Australia; (5) CSIRO, Land and water flagship, Brisbane, Australia; (6) CSIRO, Land and water flagship, Canberra, Australia

Abstract content

This abstract is a submission to parallel session N° 2220 of theme 21: Landscape & ecosystems adaptation, with the title "Landscape level adaptation and mitigation: integrating science, policy and practice"

The IPPC Climate Change 2014 Synthesis Report states it is very likely that surface temperature and sea levels will continue to rise and that extreme weather events become more frequent and severe. The interaction of climate change with other drivers of global change amplifies existing risks to social-ecological systems, and creates new ones. Adaptation to climate change should therefore be acknowledged as a long-term driver of economic, social, political and cultural transformations.

Ecosystem services are often valued for their immediate material or cultural benefits to human well-being, although in the medium- to long-term ecosystem services that sustain such benefits (referred to as regulating and supporting services in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment terminology) must be considered. In the context of climate change and its expected dramatic and likely abrupt impacts on ecosystems and on societies, an additional role for ecosystems towards human well-being has been considered, and referred to as Ecosystem-based Adaptation. Going one step further, a broader framework can be proposed for the identification, understanding and management of so-called adaptation services. Adaptation services are defined as the benefits people derive from the capacity of ecosystems to moderate and adapt to the effects of climate change.

Adaptation services differ from ecosystem services by formally recognising the intrinsic ability of ecosystems to provide valuable services for societal adaptation by (i) buffering risks, (ii) providing options and (ii) transforming. In contrast to ecosystem-based adaptation, which has been addressed under decision-making status quo, for adaptation services to emerge and inform effective adaptation, new decision contexts that incorporate the integrated transformation of values, rules and knowledge are required. In particular, new transdisciplinary knowledge will be required to drive such social changes, and to achieve consensus on decisions and actions.

As a first step, the uptake of the concept of adaptation services by scientists, managers and policy makers requires proof of the concept and identification of key underpinning mechanisms so as to move beyond a conceptual definition and iconic story lines, and to develop innovative management solutions. In this presentation we will demonstrate such a proof of concept by means of a common methodological framework applied to ecosystems from a range of latitudes and with key roles in ecosystem-based adaptation to climate change.

This framework facilitates implementation of an adaptation services approach and enables synthesis across case studies. In particular, using such a comparative approach we propose hypotheses on functional mechanisms underpinning adaptation services required to support transition and transformation of socio-ecological systems, such as the role of keystone species and keystone functional groups or the role of different types of response diversity. Landscape connectivity already does, and is expected to play a key role for transition and/or transformation of fragmented systems.

We then identify initial principles for the management of adaptation services that range from the management of pre-existing adaptation services that will support autonomous adaptation, to planned adaptation by steering new adaptation services, and to the restoration of adaptation services in degraded ecosystems. Lastly we discuss alternative adaptation pathways that could meet multiple objectives of nature conservation and human well-being.

14:40

Ecosystem services in forest conservation for climate change mitigation: a cross-site analysis of REDD+ projects

J. Förster (Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig, Germany), R. Seppelt, (Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig, Germany), T. Vaclavik (Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig, Germany)

Abstract details
Ecosystem services in forest conservation for climate change mitigation: a cross-site analysis of REDD+ projects

J. Förster (1) ; R. Seppelt, (2) ; T. Vaclavik (2)
(1) Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Dept. computational landscape ecology / dept. environmental policy, Leipzig, Germany; (2) Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Computational landscape ecology, Leipzig, Germany

Abstract content

This presentation is part of parallel session 2220 "Landscape & ecosystems adaptation" with the title "Landscape level adaptation and mitigation: integrating science, policy and practice".

 

The presentation provides insights into the role of ecosystem services in projects for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+). The role of ecosystem services in the design of 39 REDD+ projects was analysed in a cross-site comparison, revealing opportunities and trade-offs in delivering climate change mitigation, adaptation and sustainable development at the landscape level.

 

REDD+ has become a well-established building block of climate change policies under the UNFCCC. Policies require REDD+ projects to comply with safeguards for maintaining and enhancing forest ecosystem services. This cross-site analysis of REDD+ projects indicates, that the majority of REDD+ projects do address multiple ecosystem services relevant to climate change mitigation, adaptation and sustainable development, with benefits to local communities. However, the analysis also reveals challenges when it comes to the effectiveness of REDD+ projects in mitigating carbon emissions and at the same time providing benefits to local communities.

 

The findings of this analysis inform on 1) how REDD+ projects comply with safeguards defined in UNFCCC policies, and 2) how REDD+ projects contribute to mitigation and adaptation at a landscape level.

14:50

REDD+ delivery models at landscape level: the crucial role of private sector, for session "N° 2220 - Landscape & ecosystems adaptation" with the title "Landscape level adaptation and mitigation: integrating science, policy and practice"

I. Nhantumbo, (International Institute for Environment and Development, Edinburgh, United Kingdom)

Abstract details
REDD+ delivery models at landscape level: the crucial role of private sector, for session "N° 2220 - Landscape & ecosystems adaptation" with the title "Landscape level adaptation and mitigation: integrating science, policy and practice"

I. Nhantumbo, (1)
(1) International Institute for Environment and Development, Natural resources group, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Abstract content

Addressing REDD+ requires interventions at scale to address the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation within large landscapes where competing users and land uses provide an opportunity and a challenge in reducing emissions. IIED has been conducting research to understand the role and risks of private sector in REDD+ as well as the institutional and policy frameworks that govern their involvement in implementation of REDD+ - particular focus was on carbon rights and benefit hsaring. A database of 115 REDD+ initiatives in Africa, Asia and Latin America was constructed. Case studies from DRC, Mozambique and Tanzania provided for detailed analysis of the legislations and institutional arrangement in place at national and local level. This presentation will share some of the key findings related to issues of carbon rights and benefit sharing as clarity on this is core to REDD+ delivery models that are inclusive, equitable and sustainable.  In addition, IIED is conducting research and testing REDD+ at the Beira Landscape Corridor in Mozambique including three provinces (Manica, Sofala and Zambezia) in which four models were identified to address key drivers in agriculture, biomass energy, timber and non-timber harvesting practices. The role of private sector in implementing sustainable land use changes to reduce emissions is important. However, it  has been equally acknowledged that public finance for REDD+ can only do so much. Private capital is needed to provide the impetus for large scale and sustainable investment required for meaningful and measurable emissions reduction. There are questions however: what is the formulae for this private capital and who are the winners and loosers? Is the model economically viable as well as socialy and environmentally sound? Are the local small scale enterprises requiring the capital to invest in sustainable land uses likely to be a conduit for generating profits for financiers alone or they stand to gain as well?  What safeguards need to be in place to secure win-win solutions?

15:00

The role of ecosystems in Disaster Risk reduction

J. Kloos (United Nations University, Bonn, Germany), J. Frélichová (Czechglobe, Brno, Czech Republic), S. Van Der Meulen (Deltares, Utrecht, Netherlands), F. Renaud (United Nations University, Bonn, Germany), E. Lorencová (Czechglobe, Brno, Czech Republic), Z. Sebesvari (United Nations University, Bonn, Germany)

Abstract details
The role of ecosystems in Disaster Risk reduction

J. Kloos (1) ; J. Frélichová (2) ; S. Van Der Meulen (3) ; F. Renaud (4) ; E. Lorencová (2) ; Z. Sebesvari (1)
(1) United Nations University, Institute for environment and human security unu-ehs, Bonn, Germany; (2) Czechglobe, Department of human dimensions of global change, Brno, Czech Republic; (3) Deltares, Utrecht, Netherlands; (4) United Nations University, Institute for environment and human security (unu-ehs), Bonn, Germany

Abstract content

21 - Information for Decision-Making"

N° 2220 -­â€ Landscape & ecosystems adaptation" with the title "Landscape level adaptation and mitigation: integrating science, policy and practice".

 

Title of presentation: The role of ecosystems in Disaster Risk reduction

 

Ecosystems have the capacity to play an important role in disaster risk reduction (DRR) as well as in climate change adaptation (CCA). In the context of DRR, ecosystems contribute to hazard mitigation as well as to the reduction of the so called “underlying risk” as outlined in the Hyogo Framework of Action (HFA, 2005). Although engineered structures are still preferred and promoted by planning authorities dealing with disaster risk reduction in many cases, there is an increasing number of applications of ecosystem based solutions in disaster risk reduction worldwide. Similarly ecosystem based adaptation (EbA) measures in CCA are gaining recognition.  Examples of such measures are wave dampening by willow or mangrove forests, functional green infrastructure in urban areas or sustainable land management in drylands. The ESP working group on Ecosystem Services and Disaster Risk reduction aims to integrate the concept of ecosystem services into DRR and CCA and provides a platform for research investigating the potential of ecosystem-based approaches for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR). After discussing relevant concepts and identifying potential synergies, this presentation will showcase a number of applications in a range of contexts based on the existing research activities within the working group. For some selected cases, the role of ecosystem services and how they contribute to reducing risks and vulnerabilities and/or contribute to climate change adaptation will be presented. The presentation will also highlight linkages to other ESP working groups that provide solutions for disaster risk reduction from specific ecosystems perspective, such as for fresh water and marine environments.

 

15:10

A Community Forestry-landscape based approach to climate change adaptation

R. Pairojmahakij (RECOFTC, Bangkok, Thailand), R. Triraganon, (RECOFTC, Bangkok, Thailand), D. Gritten, (RECOFTC, Bangkok, Thailand), B. Poudyal, (RECOFTC, Kathmandu, Nepal)

Abstract details
A Community Forestry-landscape based approach to climate change adaptation

R. Pairojmahakij (1) ; R. Triraganon, (1) ; D. Gritten, (1) ; B. Poudyal, (2)
(1) RECOFTC, Bangkok, Thailand; (2) RECOFTC, Kathmandu, Nepal

Abstract content

International debate on the role of forests in climate change has thus far mainly focused on their potential to mitigate Greenhouse Gas emissions (GHGs), particularly through the REDD+ mechanism. However, the role of forests in contributing to climate change adaptation has been gaining recognition. In addition to the efficiencies in linking adaptation and mitigation funding and project activities, a key rationale for focusing on forest landscapes for adaptation is the reliance of approximately 450 million people on forests in the Asia Pacific region alone. The contributions of forests to the livelihoods of these local communities is significantly higher than previously thought and thus a major contributor to their adaptive capacity. Conversely, local communities may prove to be critical in on the ground implementation of activities to support ecosystem resilience. Community forestry (CF) in this context is of particular importance as a modality for providing multiple benefits to local communities, and the various assets required for adaptive capacity in a context of climate change. The focus of this research article is to present a CF based climate change adaptation framework, which is grounded in 10 case studies in Cambodia, Indonesia, Nepal, Thailand, and Vietnam, and the recent piloting of this framework in the Terai of Nepal.